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Thursday, August 20, 2009

Forms of Religion

Thursday, August 20, 2009 - 0 Comments

Religion has great social force and a factor responsible for social integration. Though it has done much disservice to the society, yet so far no society has been in a position to completely wipe out religion. Religion has changed many forms and some of them may be defined and discussed as under:
Concept of Holy:
Concept of holy is perhaps the first consideration in religion. It was distinction between unholy and holy which brought religion into picture. According to Kingsley Davis, “Religious beliefs embracing ideas, myths, legends and dogmas, are notions concerning holy and unholy things”.
In each society people believe in certain superstitions. In the past there were many superstitions in which the people had blind faith but with the advancement of scientific age many superstitions have been uprooted. But even now in underdeveloped and undeveloped nations superstitions play an important role. Briefly speaking superstition may be called a conviction which has no relation with the event.
Then the religion began to be symbolised and gradually many things began to symbolise religion. Plants, flag, colour, word, place, act all began to express religion in one form or the other. Super-empirical realities may be categorised into three categories namely subjective e.g. peace, salvation and nirvana, ascendental ends such as immorality, purification and imaginary creatures and objects such as gods, spirits, heavens, and hells. In the words of Kingsley Davis, “The characteristics of these realities are their intangibility. Since they cannot be observed directly, they can only be represented or symbolised by sensory reality”.
It propounds the existence of some supra physical beings within the body of every living being. It is a belief in the spirits of the dead. It is believed that the spirits communicate with men and that they visit the people in sleep. It is also believed that supra-physical being survive after the death of physical beings and that the form can do harm or good to the latter. In the words of Samuel Koening, “Tylor considered this concept an almost inevitable result of such universal phenomena as dream…Death, hallucinations, and epileptic fits as well as such phenomena as reflections, shadows and echoes, were other factors stimulating a belief in spirits………primitive man was thus led to animism, which according to Tylor, lies at the basis of all religions”. In our modern society, however, faith in animism is considerably reduced.
Magic may conveniently be defined as manipulation by which an effect is sought through the action of unseen powers. In the words of Kingsley Davis, “The relation between religion on the one hand and magic (whether white or black) on the other is necessarily a close one yet the two spheres can be distinguished”. Both religion and magic refer to supernatural realm but differ from each other about the kinds of ends pursued, types of attitudes involved, and the particular kind of super-naturalism required and the pattern of behaviour exhibited. Magical practices are not validated by scientific knowledge. Magic can be imitative as well as contagious. In the case of former an individual imitates what he wishes to happen whereas in the latter case it is presumed that whatsoever would come into contact with the supernatural power will be controlled by that.
In it a tribe has a faith in a particular, animal to which it adores or worships. The tribe associates itself in many ways that animal and in fact that tribe considers itself to be the descent of that animal. They attach super-empirical meaning to that animal and do not kill that. Religion comes in contact with totemism when sacrifices are made for pleasing that animal or adoring it.
Rituals are external sides of religious and have sacredness attached to it. By some thinkers it is believed that rituals are more important than the religion itself because these strengthen one’s faith in religion and religious practices. In every society certain ceremonies and rituals are observed at the time of marriage, birth as well as death. These satisfy our emotions. Though today some of these ceremonies may appear purposeless, yet it must be understood that each ritual and ceremony has some logic behind it, though today we may fail to understand them.
Sometimes we adore a material thing on account of its mysterious power. The people adore that to the extent of sacredness attached to it, and also according to the extent to which desires of the processor are fulfilled.
Expressions of Religion:
Religion can be expressed in three ways namely (a) Theoretical expression; (b) Practical expression and (c) Sociological expression. Theoretical expression include myths and doctrines whereas practical expression mean all such actions which flow from and are also determined by religious experience, Sociological expressions are both personal as well as communal because we know that though religion is a collective affairs but contribution of individual to religion cannot be underestimated.
We thus find that religion is found in different societies in all forms and that it is only the extent to which its observance differs. Thus in Hindu society religion and ceremonies as well as rituals may be more important than what these are in American and British societies. But religious ceremonies and rituals are observed in almost all the societies on such important occasions as birth, marriage and death.

Religion, its Origin and Functions

Religion is found in every society and the people believe in religion in one form or the other. Accordingly there is no society, even the so-called secular society which does not believe in a type of religion. When the people fail in their efforts for achieving their targets; they believe in super-natural power and lean towards religion and God.
Religion Defined:
Religion has been defined differently by our sociologists. According to MacIver and Page, “Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man, but also between man and some higher power. Hence, it normally involves a sanction which may be called suprasocial, whether it is primitive ghost fear or the present worth of God or the penalties of an after life of tenture in hell, or merely the sense of being out of tune with the infinite when its supposed laws are disobeyed”. According to Ogburn, “Religion is attitude towards super-human powers”. Christopher Dawson says, “Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious as and higher than man’s own, there is religion, and the feeling of awe and self abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and prayer”. According to A. W. Green, “Religion is a system of belief and symbolic practices and objects governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen super-natural realm beyond the known and beyond the controllable”. Gillin and Gillin say “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalised beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs”. Durkheim says, “Religion is a unified system of belief and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden”.
From these definitions it becomes clear that there is some superior and super-natural power in every religion. Religion also makes us believe in God, though there are Godless religions as well. It also appears that spirituality and virtue are two salient features of religion. It also lays stress on rites, rivals and ceremonies. It is means and methods of preserving valuable virtues of life.
Origin of Religion:
In Sociology, we are more concerned with sociological importance of religion and less with its origin. But since religion is very much deep-rooted in society, therefore it is essential to discuss its origin as well. Like definitions of religion there is also much divergency of opinion about the origin of the religion. There are very many theories about occurrence of religion. In the beginning it was believed that religion had hypothetical beginning. Tylor and Spencer make us believe that send in the central idea of religion. The soul is considered more active than the body. It can travel more distances and so on. Gradually soul began to be considered a spirit, a good or evil genius or even a deity. In the words of Kingsley Davis, “Whereas the souls of the men were thought to govern the external world the flow of rivers, the movement of stars, the germination of plants, the reproduction of animal etc”. Max Mutter agreed with Tylor about his concept of origin of religion but laid more stress on death as the source rather than the dreams. According to him source of religion was influence of external nature of man. According to him sensation of infinite is the source for the derivation of religion. He, however, believed that religion arises only when these natural forces are no longer represented in abstract form but are transformed into personal agents, spiritual beings or gods. But these evolutionary theories have now come under critics but in spite of that these are quite prevalent. According to Kingsley Davis, “The evolutionary school indulged not only in fruitless search for origins but also in rationalistic mode of explanation. It regarded social institutions as deliberate conscious adjustments to the environment. Religious beliefs, however, are obviously non-rational”.
William Robertson Smith in Scotland, K. Durkheim in France, A. R. Redeliffe Brown in England, and Max Webber in Germany laid stress on Functional Theory of Religion. According to them, as Kingsley Davis says, “Hence in contrast to the evolutionists, these scholars did not explain social institutions in terms of their historical origins but in terms of the part they play in satisfying social needs… Though closely related to the needs of a society, they are not synonymous and indeed are sometimes in conflict with them”. David Hume and Max Mutter are of the view that religion originated in fear.
In fact it is very difficult to trace the origin of religion in any single institutions or factor. Fear, impersonal character of nature, belief in supernatural power, rites and ceremonies etc. all combined together are responsible for the origin of religion. Difficulty in tracing religion primarily arises because it is as old as man himself. Being an old institution various theories have developed around it and if these are supplemented with each other, combined together, some origin can be found.
Social Functions of Religion:
In Sociology we are concerned with the role of religion in society. Religion has a very powerful and strong hold over society. No society can afford to ignore religion nor can it play against religious sentiments of the people. Religion touches every aspect of human society. In all societies it has upheld moral and spiritual values of life. True religion promotes morality. Religion promotes inner values of man which is of greatest concern to Sociology. Religion isolates good from the evil. It enhances self-importance and brings social value closer to each other. It also rationalises human sufferings. Some of the important social functions of religion may be discussed as under:
1. Religion and Education: Religion is responsible for the spread of education. Early education, both in the East as well as West, has been through religion. Churches, temples and mosques have been centres of religion. Buddhists gave us Taxila and Nalanda universities.
2. Religion and Frustration: In our complex society each individual is worried. His worries are individually social, political and economic. He has some targets before him to achieve, which he always cannot, with the result that failures create a sense of frustration among the people, which in turn develop a negative attitude in society. It is religion which checks negative attitude and outlook. When the people get frustrated religion comes forward to soothe them. It comes to encourage and cheer, though in a different manner. Thus negative attitude and frustration is considerably reduced by religion.
3. Religion and Benevolence: True religion always wants the people to become benevolent, it desires that the helpless should be helped and the rich should come forward to help the poor and the needy. It desires that those in difficulty should be helped at all costs.
4. Religion and Self-Importance: Religion enhances individual’s prestige and creates a sense of self-importance. It is through religion alone that a person feels that he can come in unison with God and that human beings are the only creatures which can purify soul and do many noble deeds.
5. Religion and Inequality: All religions believe in human equality. There is no high and low in the eyes of religion. Doors of worship are open to all. If there are any systems of inequality these are man made and against the principles of true religion. One of the significant features of religion is that it has always encouraged alms-giving. It implies that the rich should economically assist the poor and thus economic inequality should be reduced to the extent possible. Christianity, Islam and Hinduism all have stood for alms-giving.
6. Religion and Social Values: Religion has always encouraged social values. It has denounced anti-social activities. It has always stressed that one should not tell a lie, or deceive, or cheat and be unfaithful. It has stressed that no one should indulge in anti-social activities and that social limits should be willingly and happily accepted.
Disservices of Religion:
Religion as a social factor has considerably contributed in the integration of society but at the same time it cannot be denied that it has done considerable disservice to the society as well. Some of the important disservices done to the society may briefly be discussed as under:
1. Religion and Social Progress: In many societies religion has contributed in the process of social progress. It discouraged such social reforms as widow re-marriage, ban on child marriage or sati system. It has also not accepted willingly such concepts as family planning. Many scientific and technological discoveries were also not accepted by the church. On the other hand religion has stood by the side of slavery. It has favoured private property which means exploitation. Caste system and untouchability were favoured by religion. Similarly we find that indirectly it has preached social and economic inequality.
2. Religion and Hatred: In the name of religion hatred was created among the individuals and societies. In the course of hatred there were many persecutions. In England the Roman Catholics and Protestants created hatred among each other and in the name of religion there were persecutions. In India there were also persecutions in the name of religion. One finds that in name of religion most shameless acts of misdeeds were committed during the time of partition of the country in 1947. Millions were up-rooted and forced to migrate from one part of the country to the other. Similarly such an atmosphere was created in which two great communities could not live together and all this was done in the name of religion.
3. Religion and Subjection: In the name of religion the people are subjected. The poor are taught and made to realise that they are there to be subjected to the authority of the powerful. They are made to live life of poverty. It makes them realise that some are born to rule and others to be ruled and that all this is the will of the nature and no efforts should be made to alter this supreme will of God. Religion therefore teaches subjection.
4. Religion and Class: Religion has always created a separate class which holds itself as the custodian of faith. In England the Pope and Clergy, in India Brahmans became a class themselves and thus class distinction and conscious was created in the society.
5. Religion and Corruption: Religion has, unfortunately given birth to corruption. Who does not know that priestly class gradually became corrupt. In England one of the causes of Reformation was corruption which had become part of religion of that day. In India Buddhism and Jainism raised voices against corruption in Brahmanism. There is perhaps no religion which has not been polluted by corruption.
6. Religion and Economy: Religion has also adversely affected economy. It creates a class of people who live on the labour of others. These peoples are not willing to work and thus a class of lazy people is created, which does not contribute in national wealth and production. The churches and temples have immensely amassed wealth which cannot be used for the welfare of the society as a whole. Its buried wealth is lying purposeless and useless. If this wealth is brought under circulation, the nation would have been gainer by and large. Thus religion has adversely influenced economy.
7. Religion and Fatalism: Religion makes people fatalist. It makes them believe that with their labour they cannot do anything. Accordingly religion makes the people fell contented with what they are. It teaches them not to struggle because their struggle is no likely to yield any fruitful results.
Conclusion: We may thus conclude by saying that religion very significantly contributes in our social life. In spite of the fact that it has done disservice to the society as well, yet it cannot be denied that without religion, in one form or the other, society cannot exist. It has contributed in social integration. It cannot be denied that it is not the religion which is bad but what is bad is religious dogmaticism and bigotism.

Water Logging and Salinity in Pakistan

Due to careless use of water in post, a great deal of harm to the lands is being done. The water in unlined canal is seeping through the soil have become water logged and useless for cultivation. This is considered as one harmful disease for cultivated lands. When the water table rose to five feet below the surface the saline water reached the surface by the capillary action with a further rise of the water table, water logging took place. According to exports, it is estimated that after every hour about 12 hours of our cultivated land becomes water logging, and about one lakh acres of becomes water logged, and about one lakh acres of cultivated lands of our country suffer from salinity and water logging every year. It is estimated that 20 percent of cultivated area of the country is affected by salinity of which 8 percent is severally affected. Sindh is worst affected province where 48 percent of the soil is saline, of which 18 percent is strongly saline. According to soil salinity survey undertakes by Wapda it was estimated, that in coming 20 years this disease may increase up to 30 percent. A branch of Wapda known as scarp, salinity control and Reclamation project have been launched, there are 41 stations out of which about two third have already been completed and reclamation schemes over an area of 7.3 million acres in the upper Indus plain and 4 million acres in the lower Indus plain. Ground water in upper Indus plain is usually fresh in the lower Indus plain is commonly saline, and therefore of less use for these projects.
SCARP is fighting a combat against this harmful disease, Indus Bar has been divided into 28 zones for the facilities of department, in which 17 zones of reclamation are working in Sindh. Tube wells and drains were to play the key role in reclamation.
Remedies and Suggestions:
The vast area of our cultivated lands is becoming water logged and saline every year. It is essential that the use of canal water should be limited, where canal water running in excess. Beside adequate drainage and the construction of network of tube wells are also necessary to reclaim the lands affected by water logging and salinity. The pumping of water by tube wells not only lowers the water table besides providing water for irrigation, it also helps flush the surface salts doom into the earth. Acting upon the remedial measures for water logging and salinity is not possible for individuals, because the care of these disease at once. If requires lot of time and huge investment which is not possible without government incentive and aid.

Religion and Morality:
Religion is very powerful and purposeful factor of social change and control. It is an institution which has grip over the people in all civilised societies. Kingsley Davis is of the view that “So universal, permanent and pervasive is religion in human society that unless we understand it thoroughly, we shall fail to understand society”. Though bold of religion is not so strong today as it was yesterday, yet the priests, churches, and religious institutions and organisations are listened with care and respect. How to define religion and how it originated? What is its relation with science and education? How far religion moulds society and social behaviour and what are social functions of religion are some of the important questions with which our society is faced.

Character of Agriculture Economy of Pakistan

Pakistan is an agricultural country wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane, maize, millet, oil, seeds pulses are main crops of country. Topographical condition of Pakistan is not plains, but it is uneven, about 59 percent area of Pakistan is under maintains, plateaus, and deserts. Only 41 percent area is under plains, unfortunately we are using only 38 percent are of country for the cultivation purpose. This is an interesting that Punjab possesses 26 percent land area of Pakistan but possesses 57 percent of the cultivated, area on the contrary Balochistan, possesses the largest and area (44 percent) has the smallest cultivated acreage (7 percent). This agricultural leadership of land area, i.e. Punjab is the land of Rivers and Balochistan is the land of Mountains.
About 53 percent population of our country is earning by this sector. From 100 percent cultivated area of Pakistan 65 percent area by rain (Barani) wells, tubewells, and Karez. In the economy of Pakistan, agriculture has an important role about 25 percent of total GNP of country depending on this valuable sector. Government of Pakistan faced serious problem with regard to the development of the neglected areas which has falled with in the geographical boundries of Pakistan. The government had to take revolutionary steps in the fields of agriculture in order to eliminate the convecnal and absolute system and to replace it with the modern agricultural equipment for the development of the agricultural sector. It was not easy job as huge amount of foreign exchange was involved for the import of modern machinery and equipment in order to revolutionize the conventional agriculture sector. However Pakistan gains 25 percent of total GNP from this sector.

Causes of Over Population

Pakistan is faced with problem of over population. Over population occurs when an area’s population is too large to be supported by the available resources. Although there has been a fall in the birth rate, it is still very high in relation to resources. The high population growth is damaging several development plans for the uplift of society. In Pakistan children form an important part of the agricultural and industrial labour and therefore large families are an advantage. Early marriage also increase the span for reproductively. In Pakistan majority of the people are illiterate so they are root aware of economic distress caused by high birth rate. Family planning programmes receive strong resistance on religious grounds. For example, Muslims have a firm belief that ALLAH gives Rizq to every one therefore why we have few children? However, the increase in population is due to economic, political and social factors just like.
1. Joint Family System
2. Illiteracy
3. Early Marriages
4. Religious Beliefs.
5. Customs and Traditions.
6. Strong Desires for Sons.
7. Need for More Earning Hands.
8. Lack of Recreational Facilities.
9. Avoiding of Family Planning Measures.
Affect of Over Population on Economic Development:
The rapid population growth adversely affects the economic development of the poor and under developed countries. Following are the affects or rapid population growth on economic development.
(1) Retards Development: Due to rapidly growing population, a greater percentage of scarce resource is diverted to meet the basic consumption needs messes. Therefore, little capital is saved for investment.
(2) Social Problem: Rapidly growing population creates economic and social problem such as housing education, health, transport, water, power and urbanization.
(3) Low Per Capita Income: As the population grows it reduces per capital income of the people because when decline in per capita income.
(4) Low Living Standard: The rapidly growing population decreases per capita income and service which results in a rise of general price level and therefore living standard of the people remains very low.
(5) Pressure on Land: The rapidly growing population puts heavy pressure on land by increasing the number of landless workers and also by creating the problems of low productivity and food shortage in the country.
(6) Social Infrastructure: The rapidly increasing population of a country adds to the burden on social infrastructure of the country. Therefore, it becomes difficult for the government to provide suitable facilities of education, health, housing, water, power, transport and communication to the people.
(7) Environmental Problems: The rapid growth of population creates population, unplanned colonies and environmental damages.

Causes of Un-Employment in Pakistan

Un-employment is major economic and social problem of our country. It is rural as well as urban. It is very serious and alarming and it has given birth to many evils. It is found not only among educated people, but there are millions of labours, peasants and unskilled or half skilled workers who are un-employment today. It demands its immediate remedy because it threatens the peace, prosperity and stability of free Pakistan.
There are many causes of this serious problem. The use of machinery on large scale in production is a very important cause. It has reduced the scope for human labour to a great eaten. Another cause is the enormous increase in population. It has been estimated that, population growth rate is 2.9% per year, which is one of the highest in the word. Population and production increase in geometrical and arithmetical progression respectively. Hence the means of employment cannot keep pace with growing population.
The defective system of education is also responsible for this serious problem. We attach great importance to literacy education. We neglect the technical education. This accounts for the growing unemployment. After finishing his education, our young men think it below his dignity to do physical labour. The desk jobs are insufficient to absorb the growing number of educated persons. Hence unemployment prevails in the country.
Now the remedies of unemployment are clear. We have to develop our economy on modern lines. Our agriculture is very backward. Incentive with modern technique and improved measures can provide ample and fruitful employment.
We have to apply brakes to growing population people are to thought the advantages of birth control.
We have to develop our cottage industries. They suit Pakistani conditions better. Our peasants who remain idle for six months during the year can add to their income by taking to some of these useful industries. Since there is scarity of capital we have to use such devices as involve more labour and less capital.
The system of our education is to be overhauled. It is no use producing thousands of graduates. We should lay more stren on professional and technical education. We should make the young men understand that all kinds of work are good. It is not the kind of work but the manner is which it is done which is important. As soon as they give up their hatred towards manual labour, they will get jobs.
Our government is full alive to the gravity of the problem. It is making an all out effort to solve it as speedily as it is possible. The National Planning Commission (N. P. C) has already formulated a programme to solve unemployment.

Over Population and its Solution

Population of Pakistan can play a dynamic role in economic development of the country population growths is directly related to birth rates, death rates and migration. According to Census of March 1998 Pakistan’s population swelled to 130.58 million, showing an overall increase of about 55% over the last census held in 1981. This indicated an average growth rate of 2.6% as against 3.1% during 1972-81. By 2001 and 2002 the population as estimated to have reached 145.96 million.
For the last thirty years the death rate has declined due to access to medical facilities by the people. Disease like cholera, Malaria and Typhoid has been brought under control. There has been an improvement in food production. The death rate has come down from 30 in 1947 to 8.20 per 1000 in 2002. There has been the decline in the birth the birth rate from 50 in 1947 to 28. 70 per thousand in 2002 in spite of the decline in population growth rate since 1971. It stills remains one of the highest in the region compared to 2.2% in Bangladesh and 1.9% in India.
Solution of Over Population Problem:
There are two different approaches to tackles the population problem.
1. By increasing G.D.P: For improving the living standard and providing better facilities to the people it is necessary that all the resources available in the country should be full utilized, so that no one should be useless. For example, to increase agriculture output following measures should be adopted, i.e. use of modern technology, use of fertilizer and spray of pesticides, availability of better seeds, soil preservation, better irrigation facilities, change in life style of rural people and full utilization of forest and minerals resources. Moreover, in the industrial sector, supply of raw material, availability of fiancé and technical knowledge are necessary. In the same way in other sector of the economy, steps should be taken to improve the labour efficiency so there should be over all increase in production and an increase in per capita income.
2. By controlling Population: To tackle the problems of excessive population growth the government should adopt positive population control policies along with basic needs activities for development. The best and effective way of population control is through a reduction in birth rate that is known in our country planning. By population planning we do not mean that there should not be any marriage or no child or illegal abortion, but we only mean a healthy gap between the birth of children so that each child could be provided better health, food, clothing and educational facilities to enable him to be better citizen. In term developed countries there is shortage of resources and hence a reduction in birth rate in necessary so that living standard of the existing population could be increased and they could be provided better economic facilities. Pakistan is facing high growth rate of population and it is going to be doubled in 23 years. So population planning is necessary to overcome this series problem. If we glance over the history of developed countries we can point out many countries which have enjoyed the fruit of economic development by an effective control of population.

Population Problems of Pakistan

Population expansion is a social problem of the whole world. World population is expanding at the rate of about 2% annually.
The Western advanced countries are expanding with the rate at 1% or less. The population of Great Britain is expanding at a rate of 0.1%, USA at 1%, Russia at 0.9%, China at 1.8%, Japan at 1.1% during 1970-80 population of 2.6% annually during census of 1998.
Population expansion is a problem only when the rate of population expansion is exceeding the rate of expansion in resources. The rate of progress decreases with population expansion and the national resources go waste.
Pakistan is facing this problem seriously because the resources are decreasing due to water – logging and salinity of lands. Floods and erosion of land are major problems every year by which the crops and the lands are wasted. By water logging thousands of acres go barren every year.
Low yield per acre is another problem in agriculture. Our 53% workers are engaged in agriculture which constitutes 28% of the population. (Census 1998)
We import wheat and edible oils from United States of America. Less than 5% population is cultivating the lands in USA. America with a population of more than two hundred million people provides food to its people and exports to other countries including Pakistan. The cause of low yield per acre lies not in less work but in unscientific technology adopted in agriculture.
Every year a large number of crops are wasted by pests besides using pesticides with a heavy financial investment. Similarly the people with limited resources and less information on mechanized farming are unable to control the problem of low yield. More over the supply of better seeds and cultivating machines to the cultivators is not done at the proper time of land cultivation. About half of the lands are cultivated late after the prescribed period. This leads to low production of crops because the plants remain weak and can not face the attack of pests. In this way some of the crops are wasted. This leads to low production per acre in agriculture.
Population expansion is a boon for the nations because none of the countries destroy their men, women and their children. To continue their race, humanity has its purpose to remain continuing from generation to generation with product of children.
Here the problem is that the economic resources are deficient and the requirement of a person is higher for his life. By this way one is disturbed when the balance of income and expenditure becomes unbalanced. Some people say that creating balance between expenditure and income resources is the main aim. I agree with this proposal to the extent that human labour can be utilized in expanding material resources.
Those who oppose this idea say that most of the human beings can not be put into hard labour and output of such labour in less fruitful, in face of requirements.
Another view is that the earning members in a family are a few. The rest of the members depend upon them. This brings down our family income in most of the Middle and Eastern countries the men work and women remain in houses. Although it brings peace in family, and economically the per capita income remains poor in most of the case. Those people who are facing population explosion feel least dissatisfied. They say, we are satisfied and have no problem. They believe on nature and then on their labour.
On the other hand the economists in a family sociologist and exports feel this expansion is a great mean to human life. They say that most of the human resources are consumed by the exceeding number of family members which brings down the standard of living. Some important figures on population growth of Pakistan are that in 1992 our population was 117.32 million. The growth rate was 3.10% in 1998 population increased to 130 million with 2.6% annual.
Crude birth rate (c.b.r) in 35 total number olive birth in an area of 1000 population within one year. Crude death rate is the total numbers of death in an area of 1000 people in one year.
C.b.r – C.d.r = natural increase in population
35 – 9 = 26
It means in a population of 1000 people 26 persons are added every year in Pakistan. In 1000 people the addition will be equal to 26 + 10 = 2.6 it means 2.6% population is increasing annually in Pakistan.
Causes of Population Expansion:
1. Natural birth is allowed in a family. Almost of the children are produced in families, where the culture has on barrier.
2. Modern health and sanitation facilities have led to child birth alive and the chances of death of child and mother have been reduced at maternity. Health centres and education played major role in this respect.
3. The medical facilities have been increased and adopted by the people to control diseases by which the death rate has been reduced.
4. Some cultures lay emphasis on having more and more number of children to make it a sign of Prestige. This has led to Polygamy.
5. People hate the methods of birth control, fell unnatural and dislike their application.
6. Some people think that natural birth should not be stopped because this is against religious values.
Solution of Problem:
1. Till the people are not motivated the population control efforts will remain futile. Those people who are busy in population control Programmes failed to show good results.
2. The motivation Programmes are disliked by people therefore their teaching can not be done openly in society.
3. It is the voluntary programme in which the people can not be forced to adopt their methods that is why the results of the Programme are not encouraging.
4. Most of people are heard saying that two to three children are sufficient in a family.
But when asked to adopt control methods they lay behind because the policy has not been adopted and accepted by the people. Still opposition in there and this needs vast information and Propaganda through mass media communication.
5. Emphasis on hard work and labour should be increased. All the adult members of family to go on work of any nature, so that the income of family may increase. It will reduce the problem of income and standard of living will not suffer. The rate of progress in the family will rise by and by. Unemployed persons should be given jobs of their parents and they should not feel shy in doing work whether it is of any nature.

Theory of Population

The theory of population is an explanation of the phenomenon of population growth. It tries to explain the rise and fall, the growth and decrease of population in different countries. It surveys the trends and analyse the cause of the various stage in the curve of population. Based upon data in one or more particular countries a population theory seeks to generalise about the laws of population. It tries to unravel the first principles of demographical process. Though systemic theories of population have evolved very recently, theorising about population is sufficiently old. In against times statesmen and thinkers tried to control population according to the variability of means or to encourage it if required. Criteria for encouraging or discouraging were the military, political, social and economic issues. This is true about population theory even now. The problem of population is not worked out in vacuum. It is always considered in the context of economic, social and political issues. Of these the economic issue is the most important since the most important problem concerning population is to meet the need of the growing population. The history of population theories has been classified on the basis of before and after the advent of Malthus, the celebrated demographer. Thus the Periods are classified as Pre-Malthusian, Malthusian and Post Malthusian Periods. These Periods show thinking about population theories. But even before these early thinking can be discerned about population problems.
Early Thinking on Population:
Most of thinking in the west started with the Greek thinkers in the Greek scheme of life, the individual was a part of the state. The purpose of marriage was procreation wars required a continuous demand of soldiers. Therefore, procreation was encourage and even rewarded by Greeks and the Romans. The Spartans and the Athenians encouraged population and encouraged optimum population. According to Plato (427 – 347BC) a city state should have 5040 citizens so that highest good manly be achieved. In this ideal population Plato also did include women, children and slaves. Including them the total population of an ideal city in Plato’s times was about 50,000. Plato also did not over look the possibility that the demographic ideals may not be followed. Therefore, he recommended infanticide on the grounds of Eugenics. In order to control population and maintain its highest quality Plato recommended selective breeding among human beings. He recommended that the age of marriage for the girls should be between 16 and 20. Marriage was made compulsory. The peculiar number of 5040, accordings to Jawlt, is based upon numerology. According to Hutchison, “it was simply to aid in maintaining an even division of Property” Plato’s ideal on population, as expressed in his law, were based on the ideal of city sate.
After Plato, Aristotle (384 – 322BC) maintained that fast population growth leads to increase in Poverty and suggested abortions and infanticides in order to control the size of the city state. He also proposed family Planning to be prescribed by the state. Thus the Greek thinkers insisted both on proper quantity and quality of population.
Besides Greeks, the Romans also thought over population issues. They encouraged Procreation and made marriage compulsory. Those who do not marry were burdened by several disabilities.

Malthusian Theory of Population

The most important theory in the history of demography was Presented by Thomas Robert Malthus (1766 – 1834). Among his most important works was his famous Essay on Population entitled: An Essay on The Principle of Population as It effects the future improvement of society, with Remarks on the Speculation of Mr. Godwin, M Condor Cuts. This essay was Published anonymously. It how ever, became one of the most controversial books of modern times, and brought both hounar and criticism to the author. It importance as a land mark in the history of population can be Judged by study of population doctrines.
Malthus started his Essay by laying down two Populalationes: “First, the food is necessary to the existence of man”. “Secondly, the Position between the sexes is necessary of and will remain nearly in its Present state”. He argund, “Assuming they may Postulate as granted, say that Power of Population is definitely greater than the Power in the earth to Produce subsistence for me. Population, when unchecked increases in a geometrical ratio. Subsistence increases only in an arithmetical ratio. A salight acquaintance for with number will show the immensity of the first power in compertion with the second”. The following Proposition were put for the by Malthus, to establish his theory.
1. Population is necessarily limited by the means of subsistence.
2. Population invariably increases where the means of subsistence increase unless Prevented by some very power full and obvious checks.
3. These cheacks, and the cheacks wich repress the superior power of population and its effect on a level with the means of subsistence, are all resolvable into moral restraint, vice and misery. “There for Matlhus concluded. Thinking the whole earth the human species would increase as them number.
1, 2, 3, 4, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256 and the substance as number 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 in two centuries, the population would be to the means of subsistence as 256 to 8….. Malthus recognised that the growth of population does not go uncheaked. Pointing out powerful cheacks on the growth population. He said, “The first of these the cheacks may, with propriety, be called the preventive cheaks to population, and the absoulute necessity of their operation in the case supposed is as certain and absolute necessity. As that man cannot live with out”. Now in order to cheacks such as epidemics, wars and famines, Malthus suggested moral restraints as the best Preventive check. He described it as “Abstinence from marrage, either for a time or permanently, from prdenitail, consideration, with a strictty moral conduct towards the sex in the interval. And this the only mode of Keeping population on a level with the means of subsistence which is perfectly consistent with virture and happiness”. Vice was described as, “a short of intercourse which renders some of women of large towns un prolific”. Such as prostitution and extra-marital sexual relations, the preventive checks were necessary in order to avoid positive checks which tended to shorten human life. These positive checks have been described by Malthus. Such un whole some occupations severe labour and exposure to the seasons-bad and insufficient food and clothing from poverty-bad nursing of children-excesses of all kinds-great town and manufactories the whole train of common diseases and epidemics-wars, infanticides plague, famine”. Malthus was against poor laws since he considered poverty as an evil. He classified positive checks also into two categories.
The first were those brought about by natural cases an at labelled as exclusively nisery’ such as epidemics, famines e.t.c. the other positive checks were whose which mankind brought upon it self by it self such as wars and all types of excesses which could have been avoided.

Main Criteria and Kinds of Socialization

Socialization is a process by which the biological man is made social through socio-cultural influences around him. This is a lengthy process through which group values are induced into an individual. Socialization stands for a process by which the original nature of man is fashioned into social being. From the social point of view, socialization is the way of transmitting the culture to an individual and the individual is fitted into an organized way of group life.
So, broadly speaking, socialization is the transmission of culture to an individual. This transmission mostly takes place through learning and an effective learning comes from one’s experiences. This experiences can be gained through social interaction. The group life provides chances of social interaction; thus it plays very important role in socialization of the individual. There are two major classifications, of group interaction i.e. significant others and generalized other”. Socialization of an individual mostly takes place through significant other (primary group) and generalized other; (secondary groups).
Socialization is a process of learning the expectations (standards of values and specific norms of behaviour) associated with various roles to which the individual is allocated. Devianey is the tedeney of the individual who had a full opportunity to ignore these expectations, to deviate from them, because maximum gratification of this personal need does not corresponded with conformity to the expectations. Socialization helps bringing social control in society. Socialization is not a matter of one or two days, but on other hand, it is a long process having various stages trough which a child has to pass and get socialized. In this beginning a child learn the group norms through his expenences, while living primary groups later on the acquires socio cultural pattern by interacting with generalized other. In this way he learns what is expected behaviour in different social situations.
Kinds of Socialization:
There are two important kinds of socialization i.e. informal socialization and formal socialization.
1. Informal Socialization: By informal socialization we mean a social learning which an individual receives in his primary group of from these he is in direct contact with such as parents, family, playmates and also books he reads. It is not conscious and an organized learning for certain ends. It occurs consciously or unconsciously. For example, learning beliefs, languages and moral values fall in this category.
2. Formal Socialization: Formal socialization includes both conscious learning of an individual which takes place in a particular direction with specific purpose and under certain rules and regulations and in an organised way. For example a child in the schools is socialized in certain direction with certain purpose or the training and grooming of army officers as well as civilians also fall in this definition.

Importance of Social Inter-Action in Society

What do you understand by social inter-action? It is essential for the growth of society.
Ans: Society is essential for physical and cultural development of people and all social groups act and behave in the particular fashision. When the people meet and see each other they either act favourably or react unfavourable to actions and behaviour of other. Not only this, but behaviour of every other individual. Thus there is a reaction going on around and it has been said that social interaction is stimulation of social behaviour and conduct.
Various definations have been put forth by our social scientists for defing social interaction Dowson and Getly are of the opinion that “Social interaction is the process where by men interpeneterate the minds of each other”. Gish he said that “Social interaction is the reciprocal influence human being exert on each other through inter-stimulation and response”. Eldrege and Merrill have said that social interaction is the general process where by two or more persons are in meaningful contact with each other as a result of which their behaviour is modified, however, slightly”.
Importance of Social Interaction:
The importance can not be understand. For purpose of clarity we must understand interaction under following heads.
1. Interaction Influences What We Do:
Interaction influences our action to a considerable length. It becomes an important cause of our acts. We continuously adjust our acts to social salvations. Our decisions are influenced by other people’s acts towards us and our acts influences them as they are taken into account. We influence each other, and each do things that we never thought we would ever do, or could do or wanted to do. Human beings are not solid, unchanging moulds; they change continuously in interaction. All of us are potentially saints or sinners. We can become either or both depending on interaction. For instance, we are in the company of delinquents; they daily use drugs, do crimes naturally in interaction with them.
2. Interaction Socializes Us:
We are socialized in interaction and we socialize others through interaction. Socialization is the process by which we take on human qualities, the process by which we can become the members of society. It is also the process out of which we each develop our individual qualities: attitudes, ideas, habits, values, personality and so on.
Though the interaction we develop language and self. We learn words from others, we speak, we are corrected and overtime we come to understand a host of word, sentences and ideas. Also, in interaction we learn that we exist, we become self-aware. And it is in all of this that we eventually become recognizably human. Each individual is being formed reaffirmed and altered as he or she interacts. Language, ideas, morals, values, tastes, like identity – result from socialization through interaction. The study of socialization is, therefore the study of interaction and how it forms the individual.
3. Interaction is the Source of Human Co-operation:
Interaction is important for on going human co-operation, it is through interaction that we come to know how to organise our actions in relation to others so that we can achieve goals. In interaction, we tell other what they must do and they tell us that we ought to do. Any problem that must be solved co-operatily, from making a touchstone to deciding the guilt on innocence of a person on trial, requires communication through interaction.
4. Interaction creates Social patterns:
Interaction leads to Social patterns. Social Patterns refer to the fact that as people interact and get used to each other. Interaction becomes organised, rule bound, less spontaneous, more structural and predicated. People understand what to do around each other. In this way some things new is established among those who interact, something created, comes to influence those in the interaction. Interaction set, bound to by shared rules, ideas, values, roles.

Difference between Society and Community

Human beings are social animals. The quality we call humanity can be achieved only through social living, for there is no such things as a person whose personality and behaviour have not developed within some human society. Individual and society are both but what is the exact relationship between the two is taxing problem. Habits of a child closely develop in society and a child develops, and grows according to his social environments. In a few words, man is a social animal both by need, nature and necessity without. Society he cannot advance and it is impossible to have fullest expression of his personality and facilities. He requires society both for his life and also for the sake of good life. Society makes his life pleasant and worth living.
Community distinctly has territorial character and people in a community have common soil as well as shared way of life. In the past, community life was very simple but with the changes in society, changes in the community life are also rapidly coming. These changes are visible in both rural and urban life. There are different elements, which help in the development of community setiment. It may however, be remembered that community is different from society as well as association.
However, following points may clear the concept of society and the community.
1. Population, it is one of the most essential and indispensable characteristics of a community irrespective of the consideration whether people have or have not consicious relations.
2. Nature, A community by nature is discrete as compared with society.
3. Area, For a community area or locality is very essential and that perhaps is the reason that the community has a definite shape.

4. Heterogeneity, A community has compatively rarrow scope for community sentiments and as such it cannot have wide heterogeneity.
5. Group of people living together sharing basic conditions of social life. i-e religion languages (very often).
6. It is smaller than the society which is closely tied and well-knit group.
7. It is more ethnocentric than society. Because its members share sentiments.
8. Definite geographical areas is essential.

9. Community exists within society.
10. In a community one finds that common objectives are less extensive and loosely coordinated. Society
1. Population is of course important but here the population is conditional by a feeling of one men. Thus consitous relations are more important than the mere population for a society.
2. By nature and character society is abstract and we can only feel about society.
3. Society is area less and shapless and for a society area is no consideration. That perhaps is the reason that the people living in distant areas and working in different fields conform society.
4. A society has heterogeneity and because of its wide scope and field can embrace people having different confucts.

5. Society is name of structure of all social relaship. Direct or indirect organised on in organised co operative or antagonistic.
6. It is a larger group based on aware nen or conscious nen of its other member/group set.
7. It is less ethnocentric than community. Its members do no share sentiments.
8. Definite geographical area and locality is not necessary.
9. Society include many communities.
10. On other hand in a developed society common objection are more extensive and closely coordinated.

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