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Friday, November 9, 2012

Anatomical Positions

Friday, November 9, 2012 - 1 Comment


The human body is studied from the erect position with the arms by the side and the palms of the hands facing forward, the head erect and eyes looking straight in front.
The various parts of the body are then described in relation to some imaginary lies on planes.

The Median plane runs through-out the enter of the body, any structure which lies nearer to median plane of the body in comparison to other structure away from it is said to be Medial.
e.g.: The hamstring muscles which lie in the inner side of the thigh are medial to those muscles which are at the side of the thigh.

The term internal and external are used to describe the relative distance to an organ or structure from the centre of the cavity.
e.g.: The ribs have an internal surface which is near to the chest cavity and an external surface which is on the outer side, further away from the cavity. The internal carotid artery is inside the cranial cavity, whereas external carotid artery lies outside the cavity.

The superficial and deep are used to denote relative distance from the surface of the body.

The superior and inferior denote positions relatively high or low, particularly in relations with the trunk e.g.: superior and inferior surfaces of clavicle.

The anterior and posterior are synonymous with ventral and dorsal. These terms are only applied to man in anatomical position.
e.g.: Anterior and posterior Tibial arteries lie in front and behind of the leg. It should be kept in mind that while describing hands and feet, the anterior part is called palmer and posterior as dorsal for hands, and for feet it is planter as anterior and dorsal as posterior.

The term proximal and distal are employed to describe nearness to or distance from a given point particularly in relations to limbs.

e.g.: The proximal phalanges are near to the wrist than distal.

Terms Used in Anatomy (Short Note)


Allah has created human body in a strange manner. Some what it is symmetrical and in some places it is also asymmetrical.
Symmetrically speaking we have similar right and left limbs, there are left and right eyes, ears, right and left lungs and right and left kidneys.

Asymmetrically the spleen lies entirely on left side. The larger part of liver lies on right side, the pancreas lies partly on each side.

Anatomy and Types of Anatomy


Anatomy can be defined as the study of structure of the body and of the relationship of its constituents parts to each other.
It is a great information cadre, which deals with lots of other definitions at the same time.
1. Regional Anatomy
2. Systemic Anatomy
3. Functional Anatomy
4. Macroscopic Anatomy
5. Microscopic Anatomy

1. Regional Anatomy: It is a geographical study made in each region of the body.
Example: Arms, Head, Chest.
2. Systemic Anatomy: It deals with the structures commonly present in all regions like bones, muscles, nerves and blood vessels etc, which basically denote the presence of different systems.
3. Functional Anatomy: This deals with the functional attitude of the body which is closely related to physiology.
4. Macroscopic Anatomy: It deals with the description of the structure of body observed through naked eye.
5. Microscopic Anatomy: It’s the study of the structures of the body with the help of microscope.

Anatomy has two additional helps by Histology and Cytology.
Histology: It is the study of the fine structures of the body.

Cytology: It is the study of the cells.

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