Sunday, August 26, 2012

Morphological Characters of an Angiospermic Plant


Question: Give morphological characters of an Angiospermic Plant.
Answer: An angiospermic plant consists of vegetative organs, the roots, stem and branches and leaves and reproductive organs, the flowers and fruit. Vegetative organs are meant for absorption of raw material (water and minerals), manuface of food and its utilization for growth and development. These organs are not directly connected with reproduction; they may give rise to new plants. This method of reproduction involving vegetative organs of the plant is termed as vegetative reproduction.

Roots are usually non green and grow under the soil. These anchor the plant and absorb water and minerals from the soil. In certain instances these act as storage organs e.g. Radish.
Stem forms the aerial axis of the plant. Stem axis elongates with the help of terminal bud present at its apex. This stem bears branches, leaves and flowers. Stem is responsible for conduction of absorbed material from root to different plant parts, food manufactured in leaves and food storage in some cases. It also bears flowers which are responsible for reproduction leaves are usually green and are lateral outgrowth of stem and its branches. The place where the leaf is attached to the stem is called a Node and the part of stem between successive nodes is called an internode. Axillary space between a leaf and stem or its branch is called axil of the leaf. In the axil of the leaves, buds called axillary buds are found.

Each leaf usually consists of a stalk called petiole and an expanded green potion known as lamina. In lamina a prominent median vein called mid rib is present. Also many small veins are present.
Flowers vary in size, form and colour in different species. Each flower is composed of four types of floral leaves, the sepals, petals, stamens and corpels, arranged in whorls on thalamus. These whorls are known as calyx, corolla, Androecium and Gynoecium. Sepals and petals are together referred to as perianth. Each stamen consists of a filament and an anther while each corpel is differentiated into a stigma, style and ovary. Ovary contains small rounded or oval bodies, the ovules which develop into seeds. The ovary on ripening forms fruit the seeds on germination produce seedlings which develop into new plant.

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