Thursday, July 15, 2010
Globalizing issues have effects on four major areas of international relations theory and practice.
First, the interconnectedness of the plethora of sub-issues within health, environmental, and human rights issues affect international bargaining. When states choose to go to the bargaining table, a multiplicity of issues is often at stake.
Many issues are fungible; states are willing to make trade-offs between issues to achieve the desired result. For example, in the aftermath of the 1973 oil embargo and in the face of supply shortages, the
To win an ally in the supply of petroleum resources, the
Today, states are interconnected and interdependent to a degree never previously experienced. Globalization is clearly illustrated in several issues of the twenty-first century. In this article, we examine three globalizing issues, specifically health, the environment, and human rights, among a plethora of possible issues. For these issues we show interconnectedness, the interaction among various international actors, and the impacts of these changes on core concepts and on the study of international relations.
In the twenty-first century, more different kinds of actors than ever participate in international politics, including the state, ethno national challengers, multinational corporations, intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, trans-national movements and networks, and individuals. The transition from states being the main actors in international relations to the growing importance of non-state actors portends a significant power shift. These new actors address a great variety of issues that are substantively and geographically inter linked from the local to the global level. Here we introduced two of the core issues-security and the international political economy. These two issues have evolved in new ways. State security is now human security; interstate wars may be less prevalent than civil wars or terrorist operations. The international political economy is just part of the broader process of globalization, dominated by actors other than the state. Economic decisions made by multinational corporations affect national balances of payments and the ability of workers at the local level to hold a job and make a living wage. Issues such as health, the environment, and human rights may be as salient to states and individuals as traditional “guns or butter” issues. Finally, the changes wrought by the global communications and technology revolution lessens the determinacy of geography and undermines the primacy of territorial states. Distance and time are compressed; important issues can be communicated virtually instantaneously around the globe and to the most remote villages of the developing world. The ability of state leaders to manage this flow of information has diminished. One aspect of the sovereignty of the state, namely internal control over its citizens, has eroded.
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