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Saturday, October 24, 2009

Science and Society (Questions and Answers)

Saturday, October 24, 2009 - 1 Comment

Q.1: What is difference between ‘objective thinking’ and ‘prejudiced thinking’?
Ans: ‘Objective thinking means aim oriented thinking. Reasoning scientifically is objective way of thinking. The prejudiced thinking does not allow reasoning but it follows the personal beliefs.
Q.2: Explain what is meant by the ‘university’ of science and mathematics?
Ans: If we give adequate professional training in the same field, two scientists observing the same physical phenomena are likely to reach the same conclusion about them, no matter what their race, religion or political creed is. In the same their instrument will give same reading. This fact is called university of science and mathematics.
Q.3: With what meaning is ‘values’ used in the above passage?
Ans: In the above passage the word ‘values’ has been used in the sense of moral principles.
Q.4: Define ‘altruisms’?
Ans: ‘Altruism’ means unselfishness. A person who follows the principals of altruism thinks about the happiness and well being of other first.
Q.5: What is meant by ‘the humanities’?
Ans: ‘The humanities’ means classical and literary studies. The term is used to denote such subjects which promote humanistic and moral values.
Q.6: In what period does the writer appear to place the beginning of modern science?
Ans: The writer appears to place the beginning of modern science in the seventeenth century.
Q.7: In one sentence state what three features in writer’s opinion are the most important characteristics of modern science?
Ans: In writer’s opinion the most important characteristics of modern science are objective reasoning, the invention of scientific instrument and effective use of mathematics.
Q.8: The writers mentions four contributions made by science to the welfare of society. What are they?
Ans: The four contributions made by science to the welfare of society are as under:
i) It has added enormously to the interest and comfort of modern living.
ii) It has been trying hard to diminish the social evils of poverty and disease.
iii) It has invented various instruments for observation and measurement.
iv) It has given people a scientific out look.
Q.9: What is unusual about the construction of the last sentence in the last but one paragraph?
Ans: It does not carry the verb. The construction has been used to clinch the argument.
Q.10: The writer concludes by affirming that education should contain three elements. What are they?Ans: Three elements of good education according to writer are education of modern science knowledge of human beliefs and training in religion and history.

Science and Scientists (Questions and Answers)

Q.1: What is meant by the phrase the man in the street?
Ans: The phrase “the man in the street” means a common man.
Q.2: What is meant by ‘jumping to conclusion’?
Ans: By jumping to conclusion is meant arriving quickly at result without testing the statement.
Q.3: What is the meaning of ‘object’ in the last sentence of the second paragraph? Give at least two other meaning with which the word can be used?
Ans: In this sentence the word ‘object’ means aim or purpose. Two other meaning of it are ‘a noun to which action is directed’ and it also means a thing.
Q.4: What is the meaning of ‘unambiguous’?
Ans: Unambiguous means clear.
Q.5: What is an experiment?
Ans: An experiment means observation of facts under controlled condition. We do so in order test a theory.
Q.6: In not more than three sentences explain why the man in the street considers chemistry to be science and art not be science?
Ans: The man in the street lightly knows that science deals with facts and not imagination. Chemistry experiments with physical facts, so he knows it to be science. Art is based on imagination so he feels that it is not a science.
Q.7: ‘I know that fat people are stupid because I have a cousin who is fat and he is very stupid’. Explain why these words reveal an unscientific out (look)?
Ans: Science makes experiments to find universal truth. It does not arrive to any conclusion with out sufficient evidence. The scientist does not let personal prejudices influence findings. Here conclusion is drawn from the observation made of only one person’s character. So it reveals an unscientific out look. The fact is that many fat persons are not stupid at all.
Q.8: ‘I’ve always believed that girls are less intelligent than boys. I don’t care what the result of intelligence tests show – I’m not going to change my mind’. Explain why these words reveal an unscientific out look?
Ans: A person with scientific attitude does not allow his personal prejudices to influence his judgment. But the statement is based on personal prejudices against girls. Hence it is clear that the statement reveals unscientific out look.
Q.9: Explain the difference between a fact of science and a law of science. If you are student of science give an example of each?
Ans: As science deals with such objects that we can see in our daily life. These are the facts of science and science is also is a collection of rules and laws which express connection between these facts. It is a fact that electrons revolve round the nucleus of an atom but became law when Rutherford stated that how they are revolving in orbits.
Q.10: How do scientists prove that their facts are correct?Ans: Scientists prove their facts to be true by making various experiments to test their truth.

The English Language (Questions and Answers)

Q.1: When was Anglo-Saxon spoken in England?
Ans: Anglo-Saxon was spoken in England from AD 450 to AD 1150.
Q.2: Why is Anglo-Saxon not like modern English?
Ans: The reason that Anglo-Saxon is not like modern English is that there were two more foreign invasions on British. The invaders were Norman from Denmark and Normans from Normandy in France. The result of these invasions was that old English was changed into Middle English.
Q.3: What happened to the language as a result of the Norman Conquest?
Ans: As a result of the Norman Conquest, the old English was greatly modified and was turned in the course of next three centuries in to a compound language called Middle English.
Q.4: Which countries form part of the British Isles?
Ans: England, Wales and Scotland form part of the British Isles.
Q.5: Which other languages are spoken in Britain to day?
Ans: Along with English Welsh is spoken in Wales and Gae lio in Scotland, Celtic dialect was spoken in South west corner of England two hundred years ago.
Q.6: Why is English not spoken as a first language in parts of Wales and Scotland?
Ans: English is not spoken as first language in parts of Wales and Scotland because the Anglo-Saxon after conquering England could not penetrate into remote parts of Britain. The result was that English language was never implanted in those parts.
Q.7: Why does language tend to change more rapidly in a primitive society than in an advanced one?
Ans: The reason that language tend to change more rapidly in primitive society than in advanced one is that in an advanced society the invention of printing and spread of education fix the traditional usage of words and phrases so speed of change is slow. But in primitive society that is not the case. Hence change takes place rapidly.
Q.8: What kinds of words in Modern English are derived from Anglo-Saxon?
Ans: Most of common words in English are Anglo-Saxon in origin, for instance nouns like father, mother, food, drink, bed hunger, all strong verbs, most of the prepositions and conjunctions.
Q.9: Why does English have such a large vocabulary?
Ans: English has such a large vocabulary because it has borrowed several words from different languages such as German, French, Latin and Greek. It has been rightly said that the majority of England vocabulary is of Latin origin. Similarly it has also derived some words from Arabic and Dutch.
Q.10: What is the origin of word Yacht?Ans: Yacht is a Dutch word which accounts for its uncommon spelling. The name is derived from a Dutch word for hunting, Yacht were so named for their speed. First Yacht was given by the Dutch King to King Charles II as a wedding gift in 1662.

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