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Wednesday, September 23, 2009

Family Graminae (Poaceae), its Examples and Economic Importance

Wednesday, September 23, 2009 - 4 Comments

It is commonly called grass family belonging to Monocotyledons.

VEGETATIVE CHARACTERS:

Mostly annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, sometimes tree like as in bamboos.

Root: Adventitious, fibrous, fascicled, still (Maize).

Stem: The prevailing type aerial stem is corn, sorghum and sugar canes. Among perennial members the stem may be a runner extending over considerable distance or a rhizome or a root stock serving for vegetative propagation. Small tubes and corns are found in few species.

FLORAL CHARACTERS:

Inflorescence: Variable, compound of several spikelets which are combined in various ways on a main axis called the rachis. Some are in compound spikes as in wheat, others are racenes as in Fastuna while still others are panicles as in oats. Mostly inflorescence is composed a spike of spikelet as in wheat. Each spikelet may bear one to several flowers (florets) attached to a central stalk or rachilla.

Spikelet bears at the base a pair of glumes, the lower or other one called the first and the other or inner one called the second. Abone glumes and partly enclosed by them is a series of florets. Each floret at its base has a lemma or inferior palea and above a pale or superior palea. The lemma or inferior palea is the lower outer scale of the floret which in many species bears a long cylinder own or beared as an extention of the mid rip at the tip or beak. The superior palea often with two longitudinal ridges (keels or merves) stands between the lemma and rachilla. The presence of two merves conchide that it is formed by fushion of two bractioles. The essential organs of the flower lic between the tightly overlapping superior and inferior palea.

Flower: Sessile, bracteate, incomplete, bisexual (Bamboo, wheat, oat) or unisexual (Maize), Zygomorphic hypogynous.

Perianth: Sometimes 2 to 3 reduced membranous scales called lodicules lying on the anterior side below the stamns are regarded as rudimentary perianth.

Androcium: Normally there stamens (one to six in some speices e.g.: Bambusa and oryza (3+3_ filaments long free, anthers versatile, pollen grains dry.

Gynoecium: Tricarpellary syncarpous, though only one is functional uninlocular, single ovule, style short or more bearing long feathery stigmas. In maize the elongated stamens form long silken threads.

Fruit: Achenial,caryopsis. Seeds endospermic with single cotyledon.

FLORAL FORMULA:

+, ♀, P0 or 2 (lodicules), A3 or 3+3, G1.

(126) FIG 365 PAGE 479 AND FIG 366 PAGE 480 ANGIOSPERM BY G. L. CHOPRA

e.g.: Wheat (Triticum valgare), Corn (Zea rays) oats (Avena satwa), Rice (Oryza sativa), Sugarcane (Sacharum officinarum), Bamboo (Bambusa).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE:

(1) Most plants i.e. cereal crops provide food forman.

(2) Dried stem and leaves of cereal crops yield toori which is used as fodder for cattle. Dried grass or hay is also used especially.

(3) Sugar, gur, shakkar are oblamied from sweet juice from stem of sugarcane.

(4) Paper is manufactured from grasses and bamboo.

(5) Bamboos are used in building material.

Family Liliaceae, its Examples and Economic Importance

It is commonly called onion family.

VEGETATIVE CHARACTERS:

Plants generally Perennial herbs, perennating by rhizomes, bulbs, corns; rarely shrubs or trees.

Root: Usually adventitious, fibrous, sometimes tuberous to store food as in Asparagus.

Stem: Herbaceous or woody, aerial or under groud, aerial stem erect or climbing, under ground rhizomes or bulbs. In puscus and Asparagus branches are modified into leaf like structures the phylloclades.

FLORAL CHARACTERS:

INFLORUSCENCE: Raceme, Panicle, Asphodelus), Cymose umbel in Alluim, few species have solitary flowers, (Tulipa).

Flower: Regular, actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic, hermaphrodite, rarely unisexual (smitax and Ruscus), hypogynous, outer floral whorls uniform in size or colour and known as perianth, trinerous but dimerous in Maianthermum.

Perianth: Six, in two whorls, gamophyllous, occasionally pollyphyllous (Tulipa), inferior, green or petaloid. In trillium perianth is diiferentiated into green sepals and white or coloured petals.

Androecium: Siz, in two whorls, rarely 3 (Russens), Polyandrous, epiphyllous, anthers oblond or linear, 2 cells opening mostly by longitudinal slits and introse.

Gynoecium: Tricorpellary, syncarpous, ovary superior. Semi inferior in Mondo, ovules numberous, axile placentation style simple; stigma three lobed.

Fruit: A loculicidal (Aloe) or a seplicidal (Gloriosa), capsule or berry (Asparagus and smilax).

Seeds albuminous.

FLORAL FORMULA:

+, ♀, P(3+3) or 3+3, A3+3, G(3).

e.g.: True lily (Liluim), Tulip, Onion (Alluim capa), Asparangus garlic (Allium sativum), Smilax and Ruscus.

FIGURE 339 PAGE 441 ANGIOSPERM BY G. L. CHOPRA

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE:

(1) Onion and Garlic are used as food. Asparagus are edible.

(2) Fibres or yucca and few others are used as food.

(3) Slimax, Aloe and others yield useful drugs.

(4) Dracaena yields red resions juice the dragon’s blood.

(5) Many species are used as ornamental plants.

Family Compositae (Asteraceae) its Examples and Economic Importance

VEGETATIVE CHARACTER:

They are nearly all herbs but few are shambby and few reach stature of trees.

Root: Normally taproot, branched and fibrous, root tubers are produced by few species e.g.: Dahlia.

Stem: Soft, erect or prostrate, rarely climbing sometimes woody, usually hairy.

Leaf: Padical or alternate, rarely opposite or whorled, exstipulate, mostly simple of various shapes, smooth, hairy or rough, oil ducts and latex present in some.

FLORAL CHARACTERS:

Inflorescence: A head or capitulum with few of large number of sessile flowers (ray and disc florets), closely grouped on a common disc like receptacle surrounded by an involucre of few to many, more or less leafy or scaly bracts producing a flower cluster like a single flower in which invloucre is the calyx and the massed coloured flowers represent corolla. Each floret on the disc may bear scale like palea or bristly structure which is regarded as floral bract in which receptacle is said to be floral bract in which receptacle is said to be scaly e.g.: Helianthus, or structure may be lacking and then the receptacle is said to be naked e.g.: Sunchus.

The head of capitulum bears (a) The outer ray florets on the fringe of the receptacle inside the involucre are lingulate and zygomorphic while the rest of the florets the disc florets are all actinomorphic as in sunflower.

(b) All the flowers are lingulate (zygomorphic) and there is distinction between disc florets and ray florets as in sunchus and Dandelion.

(c) All the flowers are tubular and actinomorphic as in Ageratum. In capitulum the ray florets are either female or sterile, the disc florets are usually perfect sometimes unisexual.

Calyx: Reduced to a low ring or a fringe of scaly, bristly or hairy appendage on the rim of the floret axis often persists on the ripe fruit, superior.

Corolla: Sympetalous, 5-lobed or 6 cleft, actinomorphic (in disc florets) or zygomorphic or lingulate (in ray floret).

Androecium: Stamens 5 epipetalous, filaments separate anthers united to form a tube (Syngenious) round the style, dehiscence introse, superior.

Gynoecium: Carpels 2 syncarpous, ovary inferior, unilocular, with one basal ovule, style simple, passing through the staminal tube, stigma bifid with various types of pollen collection hairs or brushes.

Fruit: Achenial, Cypsela, Seed exalbuminous.

FLORAL FORMULA:

Ray florets: +, Nevter, K0 or scales, C(202), A0, G

Disc florets: +, ♀, K0 scales, C(5), A(5), G(2).

e.g.: Sunflower (Helianthus annus), Aster, Lettuce salod (Lactuca), Dandelion, Dahlio, Suncus asper.

(124) FIG 198 PAGE 261 ANGIOSPERM BY G. L. CHOPRA

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE:

(1) Root and leaves of cichory leaves of lettuce are used as food.

(2) Flowers of Kusuk yield a dye.

(3) They are used in medicinal purposes.

(4) Sunflower seed is used in oil.

Family Cucurbitaceae, Examples and its Economic Importance

It is gourd family.

VEGETATIVE CHARACTERS:

Plants are mostly annual or perennial weak stemed trailing or decumbent vines, usually climbing by means of tendrils and with plenty of juicy sap in the leaves and stems.

Root: Taproot, branched get thickened due to storage of food and water.

Stem: Herbaceous, climbing by means of tendrils or trailing, rooting at nodes, angular.

Leaf: Alternate brood, usually simple but often deeply lobed or divided and palmately veined, reticulate, petiole long and hollow. Tendrils may be simple or branched arising in the axil or opposite to the leaf at the node.

FLORAL CHARACTERS:

Inflorescence: Variable flowers often solitary. Large and showy or sometimes in racemes or cymes or in panides, unisexual, male and female borne on the same plant (monoecious e.g.: Luffa, cucumis) or on different plants (dioecious e.g.: Trichasanthes).

Flower: Regular, unisexual, rarely bisexual, smaller or large showy, white or yellow, epigymous.

Male flower: They are usually produced in much larger number, campamulate.

Calyx: Sepals five, fused, pointed, petaloid, campamulate, aestivation is imbricate.

Corolla: Petals five, fused (in momordica only at the base, in cucurbila throughout and campanulate), or free (Luffa) often deeply five lobed, valvate, imbricate, inserted on calyx tube when free. Form of corolla may be campanulate or rotate.

Androecium: usually 5 stamens, sometimes 3, free or combined to form a central column inserted on the calyx tube, anthers 2 called. Form of anthers bay be 1-lobed or 2-lobed, paired stamens have either 2-lobed or 4-lobed anthers.

Female flower: Female flowers are fewer than the male flower.

Calyx: Sepals 5, united, calyx tube adnate to the ovary and often produced beyond it.

Corolla: Petals 5, as in male free or slightly fused.

Staminoles: Rundiments of stamens 0 or 3 or 5.

Gynoecium: Tricapellary syncarpous, ovary, inferior, unilocular but often the placentae intrude far into the chamber of the ovary making the latter falsely trilocular. Most rarely the number to loculi may be one to ten.

Placentation axile but the ovules are not borne in the centre, style short, stingmas 3 often forked.

Fruit: Soft fleshy berry termed as pepo, generally indehiscent and sometimes of enormous size as in water melon or squash (Kadoo).

FLORAL FORMULA:

Male Flower: +, ♀, K(5), C5 or (5), A 5 or (2) + (2) + (1), G0

Female Flower: +, ♀, K(5), C5 or (5), A0 or 3-5 staminate, F(3).

FLORAL DIAGRAM:

FIGURE NO 166 PAGE 221 FIG 167 PAGE 122 ANGIOSPERM BY G. L. CHOPRA

e.g.: Pumbpkin (Ghia kadoo) or cucurbita pepo, cucumber or khara (cucumis sativus), Musk melon or kharbooz (cucumin melo), water melon (Hadwana), Ghiaturi (Luffa aegyptica).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE:

(1) They yield vegetables used in Kitchen,

(2) Some plants have medicinal value.

(3) Hard dried shells are used to form flasks as vessels and utensils.

Family Rosagae and its Economic Importance

VEGETATIVE CHARACTERS

Common plant is rose. Family includes large group of trees, shrubs and herbs and climbers of diverse habit.

Root: Tap root branched.

Stem: Herbaceous or hard and woody, branched; many shrubby forms are armed with spines.

Leaf: Alternate, simple or compound, pinnate, stipulate often adhering to the petiole; leaf base conspicuous, spines many, also occur on the rachis.

FLORAL CHARACTERS

Inflorescence: Flowers solitary or grouped in racemose or cymose manner, corymbs rather predomicnating which are large and showy.

Flower: Regular, bisexual, hypogynous or perigynous or epigynous oving to the fusion of the carpels with the calyx tube; epicalyx representing the stipules of the sepals sometimes present as in Fragaria.

Calyx: Sepals 5, united, adnate to the receptacle, lobes free, valvate or imbricate, green.

Corolla: petals 5 or numerous in multiples of five, free, imbricate, rosaceous, large and showy inserted on recepticular cup.

Androecium: Stamens many, free commonly borne in several cycles of 5 on the rim of the torns i.e. perigynous, rarely one. They are bending inward in bud state.

Gynoecium: Carpels one to fine or as in rose free or variously united generally superior, sometimes inferior and united with surrounding axis, disc or tubular cup. Style free or connate, commonly as many as carpels; ovules one or two in each carpel; placentation basal when the carpel is one or apocarpous but axile when many syncarpous.

Between stamens and carpels lies a cushion shaped or ring like nector secreting disc easily accessible to visiting insects attracted by large amount of pollen.

Fruit: variable, a drupe or pone or etario of drupes, achenes or follicles. Seed non endospermic embryo with fleshy cotyledons.

FLORAL FORMULA:

+, ♀, K(5), C5-, Al-, Gl- or (5)

FLORAL DIAGRAM:

FIG 140 PAGE 191 ANGIOSPERM BY G. L. CHOPRA

e.g.: Rose (Rosa Alba), rasp berry (Rubus frutiorus) strawberry (Fragaria versca), Pear (pyrus communis) and apple (Pyrus malus).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE:

This family is rich in distribution to the pleasure and welfare of mankind. It include apples, Pears, Peaches, Apricots, Almonds, Strawberries, Black berries, Rasp berries and several other edible fruits which are of immerse value.

Petals of rose have a purgative property and are used in manufacture of gull-kand and in many kinds of scents.

Family Fabaceae (Papionaceae) and its Economic Importance

Most of our vegetables like Pea, bean, pulses and ground nut used in manufacture of vegetables ghee belong to this family.

VEGETATIVE CHARACTERS: Plants are herbs, shrubs or trees, climbers, aquatic plants or xerophytes.

Root: Taproot branched bearing tubercles containing nitrogen fixing bacteria.

Stem: Herbaceous or woody, erect or climber by tendrils.

Leaf: Simple or commonly composed, modified partly or completely into tendrils, alternate stipulate, stipules leafy.

Floral characters:

Inflorescence: Racenose, rarely solitary.

Flower: bisexual, irregular, complete, zygomorphic and perigynous.

Calyx: Five sepals, gamosepalous, inferior odd sepal anterior.

Corolla: Five polypetalous, descending impricate, papilionaceous (butterfly shaped), the odd posterior is the largest and is known as standard of vexilum, two side petals are alae or wings and two lower or anterior petals are fused into boat like structure called keel or carina enclosing the essential organs.

Androecum: Ten stamens, usually diadelphous, nine fuse to form a sheath round the pistil while the tenth posterior one is free, inferior.

Gynoecum: Monorcarpellary; ovary superior, unilocular, ovules numerous on marginal placenta style long bent at its base, flattened and hairy, stigma simple.

Fruit: A legume or pod with variety of forms.

Seeds: Non endospermic.

Floral Formula: +, ♀, K (5), C1+2+(2), A (a)+1, G 1

Floral Diagram: (121) FIG 118 PAGE 167 FIG 119 PAGE 168 ANGIOSPERM BY G. L. CHOPRA

e.g. Lathyrus odoraths (sweet Pea or phulmuttar), Sesbania aegyptiaca (Jait), Arachis hypogea (Ground nuty) Alhagi marorum (Kandero), Dulbergia sissu (shishan) pisum sativum.

Economic Importance

(1) Seeds of several plants yield all the pulses like moong, mash, arhar beans, gram and peas which are commonly used as food stuffs rich in proteins and starches.

(2) Many trees yield excellent timber like sheesham.

(3) Some plants like ground nut yield oil and seed, which are edible.

(4) Pisum (matter) affords vegetables.

Family Rutaceae and its Economic Importance

Plants are nearly shrubs or small trees cultivated for fruit.

Root: Tap, branched often infected with a fungus.

Stem: Erect, woody, branched, often thorny.

Leaves: Alternate, simple, more often pinmately compound.

Inflorescena: Flowers are borne in cymes.

Flower: Regular or sometimes slightly irregular, bisexual, 5 merous but multiplies of three and four, hypogynous with large cushion like disc below the ovary.

Calyx: Sepals five or four, free or united, bell shaped or even absent.

Corolla: Petals 4-5 free, rarely connate, valuate or imbricate inferior.

Androecium: Stamens 10 or 8 or less or sometimes indefinite attached to the disc, free, opposite, petals may be united into groups (poly adelhons); another two called, introse inferior.

Gynoecium: Carpels generally 3 to 5 polycarpellary syncarpous, rarely 3 or 4; ovary superior placed on disc, 4-5 called; axile placentation, ovules usually two in each laculus; style erect, stigma capitate, sticky Fruit variable, a capsule, drupe or berry. Seeds many, endospermic or non-endospermic.

Floral formula:

+ ♀, K(5), C4-5, A10-, G(5-)

FLORAL DIAGRAM: FIG 94 PAGE 135 ANGIOSPERMS BY G. L. CHOPRA FIG 93 PAGE 134 ANGIOSPERMS BY G. L. CHOPRA

e.g.: Citrus aurantium (orange) citrus media (lemon).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE:

(1) Fruit of orange, lemon and grape is important for use.

(2) Most plants are of medicinal value on account of vitamins.

Family Brassicaceae Crucifera and its Economic Importance

This is commonly called Mustard family. Plants are annual or perennial herbs rarely shrubby.

ROOT

Top root, sometimes swollen on account of food shortage used as food.

STEM

Herbaceous, erect, cylindrical rarely woody, often reduced (Radish, trump) so that the leaves appear radical.

LEAF

Simple, canline and ramal, alternate, ex-stipulate, very much divided, radicle mostly in rosettes but sessile and auriculate in the floral region.

INFLORESCENCE

Raceme, corymb or corymbo raceme.

FLOWER

Ebracteate, no bracteoles, pedicellate, bisexual, regular, complete, actinomorphic rarely zygomorphic, hypogenous, cyclic. Bracts and bracteoles usually absent.

CALYX
Four in two whorls, free, caduceus, inner lateral repals are often saccate or pouch shaped at the base, imbricate, inferior.

COROLLA

Four petals clawed, imbricate or twisted, inferior.

ANDROECIUM

Six stamens, free, tetradynamous arranged in two whorls, the shorter stamens are in number and outer in position, while the four longer stamens arranged in two pairs are inner in position.

GYNOECIUM

Bicarpellary syncarpous, ovary unilocular becoming bilocular by the appearance of false septum the replum, across two placentae. Placentation parietal, ovules many, style short, stigma simple or bifid.

FRUIT

Capsular or siliqua or silicula.

SEEDS

Oily, ex albuminous with large embryo completely filling the seed.

FLORAL FORMULA

+, ♀, K2+2, C4, A2+4, G (2).

FLORAL DIAGRAM

e.g. Brassica campestain (Mustard or Sarson),

raphams staivs (Padish or Mooli), Brassica rapa (turnip or shadgam), Brassica deracea var (Cabbage or bund gobi) and brassica oleraceavar (cauliflower or Phul gobi).

(119) FIG 40 PAGE 68 AND FIG 41 PAGE 69 ANGIOSPERMS BY G. L. CHOPRA

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE

(1) Leaves, roots and inflorescence of many plants are used as vegetables.

(2) Seeds are expressed for the manufacture of oil for cooking and massage.

(3) Used in medicine and as condiment.

(4) Used as ornamental plants

(5) Used as fodder for cattle.

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