Population expansion is a social problem of the whole world. World population is expanding at the rate of about 2% annually.
The Western advanced countries are expanding with the rate at 1% or less. The population of Great Britain is expanding at a rate of 0.1%, USA at 1%, Russia at 0.9%, China at 1.8%, Japan at 1.1% during 1970-80 population of 2.6% annually during census of 1998.
Population expansion is a problem only when the rate of population expansion is exceeding the rate of expansion in resources. The rate of progress decreases with population expansion and the national resources go waste.
Pakistan is facing this problem seriously because the resources are decreasing due to water – logging and salinity of lands. Floods and erosion of land are major problems every year by which the crops and the lands are wasted. By water logging thousands of acres go barren every year.
Low yield per acre is another problem in agriculture. Our 53% workers are engaged in agriculture which constitutes 28% of the population. (Census 1998)
We import wheat and edible oils from United States of America. Less than 5% population is cultivating the lands in USA. America with a population of more than two hundred million people provides food to its people and exports to other countries including Pakistan. The cause of low yield per acre lies not in less work but in unscientific technology adopted in agriculture.
Every year a large number of crops are wasted by pests besides using pesticides with a heavy financial investment. Similarly the people with limited resources and less information on mechanized farming are unable to control the problem of low yield. More over the supply of better seeds and cultivating machines to the cultivators is not done at the proper time of land cultivation. About half of the lands are cultivated late after the prescribed period. This leads to low production of crops because the plants remain weak and can not face the attack of pests. In this way some of the crops are wasted. This leads to low production per acre in agriculture.
Population expansion is a boon for the nations because none of the countries destroy their men, women and their children. To continue their race, humanity has its purpose to remain continuing from generation to generation with product of children.
Here the problem is that the economic resources are deficient and the requirement of a person is higher for his life. By this way one is disturbed when the balance of income and expenditure becomes unbalanced. Some people say that creating balance between expenditure and income resources is the main aim. I agree with this proposal to the extent that human labour can be utilized in expanding material resources.
Those who oppose this idea say that most of the human beings can not be put into hard labour and output of such labour in less fruitful, in face of requirements.
Another view is that the earning members in a family are a few. The rest of the members depend upon them. This brings down our family income in most of the Middle and Eastern countries the men work and women remain in houses. Although it brings peace in family, and economically the per capita income remains poor in most of the case. Those people who are facing population explosion feel least dissatisfied. They say, we are satisfied and have no problem. They believe on nature and then on their labour.
On the other hand the economists in a family sociologist and exports feel this expansion is a great mean to human life. They say that most of the human resources are consumed by the exceeding number of family members which brings down the standard of living. Some important figures on population growth of Pakistan are that in 1992 our population was 117.32 million. The growth rate was 3.10% in 1998 population increased to 130 million with 2.6% annual.
Crude birth rate (c.b.r) in 35 total number olive birth in an area of 1000 population within one year. Crude death rate is the total numbers of death in an area of 1000 people in one year.
C.b.r – C.d.r = natural increase in population
35 – 9 = 26
It means in a population of 1000 people 26 persons are added every year in Pakistan. In 1000 people the addition will be equal to 26 + 10 = 2.6 it means 2.6% population is increasing annually in Pakistan.
Causes of Population Expansion:
1. Natural birth is allowed in a family. Almost of the children are produced in families, where the culture has on barrier.
2. Modern health and sanitation facilities have led to child birth alive and the chances of death of child and mother have been reduced at maternity. Health centres and education played major role in this respect.
3. The medical facilities have been increased and adopted by the people to control diseases by which the death rate has been reduced.
4. Some cultures lay emphasis on having more and more number of children to make it a sign of Prestige. This has led to Polygamy.
5. People hate the methods of birth control, fell unnatural and dislike their application.
6. Some people think that natural birth should not be stopped because this is against religious values.
Solution of Problem:
1. Till the people are not motivated the population control efforts will remain futile. Those people who are busy in population control Programmes failed to show good results.
2. The motivation Programmes are disliked by people therefore their teaching can not be done openly in society.
3. It is the voluntary programme in which the people can not be forced to adopt their methods that is why the results of the Programme are not encouraging.
4. Most of people are heard saying that two to three children are sufficient in a family.
But when asked to adopt control methods they lay behind because the policy has not been adopted and accepted by the people. Still opposition in there and this needs vast information and Propaganda through mass media communication.
5. Emphasis on hard work and labour should be increased. All the adult members of family to go on work of any nature, so that the income of family may increase. It will reduce the problem of income and standard of living will not suffer. The rate of progress in the family will rise by and by. Unemployed persons should be given jobs of their parents and they should not feel shy in doing work whether it is of any nature.