Thursday, August 20, 2009

Over Population and its Solution

Population of Pakistan can play a dynamic role in economic development of the country population growths is directly related to birth rates, death rates and migration. According to Census of March 1998 Pakistan’s population swelled to 130.58 million, showing an overall increase of about 55% over the last census held in 1981. This indicated an average growth rate of 2.6% as against 3.1% during 1972-81. By 2001 and 2002 the population as estimated to have reached 145.96 million.
For the last thirty years the death rate has declined due to access to medical facilities by the people. Disease like cholera, Malaria and Typhoid has been brought under control. There has been an improvement in food production. The death rate has come down from 30 in 1947 to 8.20 per 1000 in 2002. There has been the decline in the birth the birth rate from 50 in 1947 to 28. 70 per thousand in 2002 in spite of the decline in population growth rate since 1971. It stills remains one of the highest in the region compared to 2.2% in Bangladesh and 1.9% in India.
Solution of Over Population Problem:
There are two different approaches to tackles the population problem.
1. By increasing G.D.P: For improving the living standard and providing better facilities to the people it is necessary that all the resources available in the country should be full utilized, so that no one should be useless. For example, to increase agriculture output following measures should be adopted, i.e. use of modern technology, use of fertilizer and spray of pesticides, availability of better seeds, soil preservation, better irrigation facilities, change in life style of rural people and full utilization of forest and minerals resources. Moreover, in the industrial sector, supply of raw material, availability of fiancé and technical knowledge are necessary. In the same way in other sector of the economy, steps should be taken to improve the labour efficiency so there should be over all increase in production and an increase in per capita income.
2. By controlling Population: To tackle the problems of excessive population growth the government should adopt positive population control policies along with basic needs activities for development. The best and effective way of population control is through a reduction in birth rate that is known in our country planning. By population planning we do not mean that there should not be any marriage or no child or illegal abortion, but we only mean a healthy gap between the birth of children so that each child could be provided better health, food, clothing and educational facilities to enable him to be better citizen. In term developed countries there is shortage of resources and hence a reduction in birth rate in necessary so that living standard of the existing population could be increased and they could be provided better economic facilities. Pakistan is facing high growth rate of population and it is going to be doubled in 23 years. So population planning is necessary to overcome this series problem. If we glance over the history of developed countries we can point out many countries which have enjoyed the fruit of economic development by an effective control of population.

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