Monday, December 24, 2012

The Systems of the Body


The systemic Anatomy has been divided into two classes:

(I) According to the headings of different terms employed to indicate the knowledge of certain parts.
Examples:
Osteology is the knowledge of bones
Arthrology tells about joints.
Myology deals muscles.
Splanchnology tells about organs or viscera.
Neurology discusses about nerves and nerve structure.

(II) According to the functions, they are grouped as following:
The locomotor system.
The blood vascular system
The digestive system
The respiratory system
The ductless glands
The urogenital system
The nervous system
The special sense organs
The excretory system

1. The Locomotor System:

It includes the parts concerned with the movement of the body. It has three basic components:

(a) Skeletal system:
Consisting bones, certain cartilages and membranes.

















(b) Articulatory system:
Which deals with joints or articulation.

















(c) Mascular system:
Includes muscles, fascia and tendon sheaths.

















2. The Blood Vascular System:

It includes Circulatory System and Lymphatic System. The blood is pumped round the body by heart, oxygen is brought from the lungs and carbon dioxide is collected from the tissues. The food passes to the liver and then to general circulation and waste products are passed to kidneys.

3. The Digestive System:

It consists of alimentary canal and glands and organs associated with it. The food is broken down by enzymes in digestive tract and is taken by blood to liver and from there it is finally taken to the tissues.

4. The Respiratory System:

It contains passage and organs concerned with breathing, the oxygen from air is taken into blood and carried to the tissues. The waste product carbon dioxide is carried by the blood from body tissues to the lungs and breaths-out in expired air.

5. The Ductless Glands:

They are grouped together because of the internal secretions which they produce. The spleen is included sometimes in this group because it also has no duct, though it does not produce an internal secretion.

6. The Urogenital System:
It includes organs of urinary system and reproductive system. The waste products of the body except carbon dioxide are excreted by kidneys.

7. The Nervous System:

It is composed of central nervous system which includes brain and the spinal cord. It also has peripheral nervous system consisting of the nerves given of from brain and spinal cord.
The autonomic nervous system includes sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. It is also known as involuntary nervous system. The central and peripheral systems are often grouped together and are called as Cerebrospinal Nervous System.

8. The Special Sense Organs:

The taste, smell, sight, hearing and tactile functions of skin are discussed here. It is through theses organs that the individual is kept aware of the external forces and thus protects himself.


9. The Excretory System:
It is a term sometime employed to describe collectively the organs that deal with the excretion of waste products from the body. It includes urinary system, the lungs for elimination of carbon dioxide and colon which excretes certain insoluble substances in faeces.

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