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Monday, December 24, 2012

The Systems of the Body

Monday, December 24, 2012 - 1 Comment

The systemic Anatomy has been divided into two classes:

(I) According to the headings of different terms employed to indicate the knowledge of certain parts.
Osteology is the knowledge of bones
Arthrology tells about joints.
Myology deals muscles.
Splanchnology tells about organs or viscera.
Neurology discusses about nerves and nerve structure.

(II) According to the functions, they are grouped as following:
The locomotor system.
The blood vascular system
The digestive system
The respiratory system
The ductless glands
The urogenital system
The nervous system
The special sense organs
The excretory system

1. The Locomotor System:

It includes the parts concerned with the movement of the body. It has three basic components:

(a) Skeletal system:
Consisting bones, certain cartilages and membranes.

(b) Articulatory system:
Which deals with joints or articulation.

(c) Mascular system:
Includes muscles, fascia and tendon sheaths.

2. The Blood Vascular System:

It includes Circulatory System and Lymphatic System. The blood is pumped round the body by heart, oxygen is brought from the lungs and carbon dioxide is collected from the tissues. The food passes to the liver and then to general circulation and waste products are passed to kidneys.

3. The Digestive System:

It consists of alimentary canal and glands and organs associated with it. The food is broken down by enzymes in digestive tract and is taken by blood to liver and from there it is finally taken to the tissues.

4. The Respiratory System:

It contains passage and organs concerned with breathing, the oxygen from air is taken into blood and carried to the tissues. The waste product carbon dioxide is carried by the blood from body tissues to the lungs and breaths-out in expired air.

5. The Ductless Glands:

They are grouped together because of the internal secretions which they produce. The spleen is included sometimes in this group because it also has no duct, though it does not produce an internal secretion.

6. The Urogenital System:
It includes organs of urinary system and reproductive system. The waste products of the body except carbon dioxide are excreted by kidneys.

7. The Nervous System:

It is composed of central nervous system which includes brain and the spinal cord. It also has peripheral nervous system consisting of the nerves given of from brain and spinal cord.
The autonomic nervous system includes sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. It is also known as involuntary nervous system. The central and peripheral systems are often grouped together and are called as Cerebrospinal Nervous System.

8. The Special Sense Organs:

The taste, smell, sight, hearing and tactile functions of skin are discussed here. It is through theses organs that the individual is kept aware of the external forces and thus protects himself.

9. The Excretory System:
It is a term sometime employed to describe collectively the organs that deal with the excretion of waste products from the body. It includes urinary system, the lungs for elimination of carbon dioxide and colon which excretes certain insoluble substances in faeces.

Friday, November 9, 2012

Anatomical Positions

Friday, November 9, 2012 - 1 Comment

The human body is studied from the erect position with the arms by the side and the palms of the hands facing forward, the head erect and eyes looking straight in front.
The various parts of the body are then described in relation to some imaginary lies on planes.

The Median plane runs through-out the enter of the body, any structure which lies nearer to median plane of the body in comparison to other structure away from it is said to be Medial.
e.g.: The hamstring muscles which lie in the inner side of the thigh are medial to those muscles which are at the side of the thigh.

The term internal and external are used to describe the relative distance to an organ or structure from the centre of the cavity.
e.g.: The ribs have an internal surface which is near to the chest cavity and an external surface which is on the outer side, further away from the cavity. The internal carotid artery is inside the cranial cavity, whereas external carotid artery lies outside the cavity.

The superficial and deep are used to denote relative distance from the surface of the body.

The superior and inferior denote positions relatively high or low, particularly in relations with the trunk e.g.: superior and inferior surfaces of clavicle.

The anterior and posterior are synonymous with ventral and dorsal. These terms are only applied to man in anatomical position.
e.g.: Anterior and posterior Tibial arteries lie in front and behind of the leg. It should be kept in mind that while describing hands and feet, the anterior part is called palmer and posterior as dorsal for hands, and for feet it is planter as anterior and dorsal as posterior.

The term proximal and distal are employed to describe nearness to or distance from a given point particularly in relations to limbs.

e.g.: The proximal phalanges are near to the wrist than distal.

Terms Used in Anatomy (Short Note)

Allah has created human body in a strange manner. Some what it is symmetrical and in some places it is also asymmetrical.
Symmetrically speaking we have similar right and left limbs, there are left and right eyes, ears, right and left lungs and right and left kidneys.

Asymmetrically the spleen lies entirely on left side. The larger part of liver lies on right side, the pancreas lies partly on each side.

Anatomy and Types of Anatomy

Anatomy can be defined as the study of structure of the body and of the relationship of its constituents parts to each other.
It is a great information cadre, which deals with lots of other definitions at the same time.
1. Regional Anatomy
2. Systemic Anatomy
3. Functional Anatomy
4. Macroscopic Anatomy
5. Microscopic Anatomy

1. Regional Anatomy: It is a geographical study made in each region of the body.
Example: Arms, Head, Chest.
2. Systemic Anatomy: It deals with the structures commonly present in all regions like bones, muscles, nerves and blood vessels etc, which basically denote the presence of different systems.
3. Functional Anatomy: This deals with the functional attitude of the body which is closely related to physiology.
4. Macroscopic Anatomy: It deals with the description of the structure of body observed through naked eye.
5. Microscopic Anatomy: It’s the study of the structures of the body with the help of microscope.

Anatomy has two additional helps by Histology and Cytology.
Histology: It is the study of the fine structures of the body.

Cytology: It is the study of the cells.

Friday, October 26, 2012

Osmosis (Short Note)

Friday, October 26, 2012 - 2 Comments

Osmosis is a process by which solvent molecules (water) diffuse across selectively permeable membrane, from a region of low solute concentration to the high solute concentration. Due to osmosis water moves from one cell to another cell. It also maintains the turgidity of cells. With the help of this process plants absorbs large quantity of water by roots.

Diffusion (Short Note)

It is the movement of molecules from the area of higher concentration to the area of lower concentration. A few substances freely diffuse across the cell membrane. For example oxygen, carbon dioxide, diffuse in and out of the cells.

Diffusion is an essential step in the biological processes like photosynthesis, respiration etc. During stomatal transpiration, water vapours from the intercellular spaces escape out in the outer atmosphere by this process.

Sunday, August 26, 2012

Aims, Objectives, Importance and Classification of Plant Systematics

Sunday, August 26, 2012 - 5 Comments

Question: Describe aims, objectives and importance of plant systematics (classification).
Answer: Classification is the arrangement of plants into groups having common characteristics. These groups are arranged into a system. Similar species of flowering plants are placed in a Genus, similar genera grouped into families; families with common features are arranged into orders; orders into classes and classes into divisions.

The aim of classification is to place the plants into a hierarchy of ranks or categories such as species, genera, families and so on. In addition to expressing relationship based on common features, classification serves as a filing and information retrieval system and allows easier reference to organisms comprising the filing system i.e. it provides an idea bout the sequence of evolution of plants from simple to more complex and from more primitive to more advanced types.
The criteria of the classification are the characters on which the classification is based. The characters of an organism are all the features or attributes (leaf width, stamen number, corolla length, locule number, placentation, etc) possessed by the organism that may be composed, measured, counted, described or otherwise assessed. This means that indifferences, similarities and discontinuities between plants and taxa are reflected in their character. The characters of a taxon are determined by observing or analyzing samples of individuals and recording the observations or by conducting controlled experiments.
Certain characters which are used in description, delimitation or identification are called Diagnostic characters, whereas the characters of constant nature which are used to help define a group are termed as synthetic characters. A character may be qualitative character when it refers to such things as flower colour, odour, leaf shape etc. or quantitative character when it expresses the features that can be counted or measured such as size, length, and breadth, etc. Important characters are:
(i) to provide information for construction of taxonomic system.
(ii) to supply characters for construction of keys for identification.
(iii) to furnish features useful in the description and delimitation of taxa; and
(iv) to enable the scientists to use predictive value of classification.

Morphological and anatomical characters are used for the purpose of classification. Structures are observed with the eye, hand lens or light microscope or by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Modern instrumentation allows comparative studies of physiological rates such as photosynthesis and analysis of chemical compounds produced by the plants. For classification purpose, there is increasing use of evidence from the fields such as cytology, biogeography, paleo-botany, phyto-chemistry, population biology, molecular biology and ulra structure.
Vegetative parts of angiosperms such as leaves stems and roots are relatively large and easy to observe but they generally provide fewer characters for classification than reproductive structures such as sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils. Vegetative features of flowering plants, especially size and shape, tend to be more influenced by environmental features than are reproductive features. As a result certain vegetative characters are less reliable and less useful than reproductive characters in classification of plants.
Union of sepals, petals, stamens and corpels; epipetalous condition, placenlation, hypogyny, epigyny and perigyny; number of cotyledons, presence and absence of endosperms, structure of fruit and seed are common reproductive characters used for classification. Phylotais, venation and presence of absence of stipules, are vegetative characters used for classification.

Morphological Characters of an Angiospermic Plant

Question: Give morphological characters of an Angiospermic Plant.
Answer: An angiospermic plant consists of vegetative organs, the roots, stem and branches and leaves and reproductive organs, the flowers and fruit. Vegetative organs are meant for absorption of raw material (water and minerals), manuface of food and its utilization for growth and development. These organs are not directly connected with reproduction; they may give rise to new plants. This method of reproduction involving vegetative organs of the plant is termed as vegetative reproduction.

Roots are usually non green and grow under the soil. These anchor the plant and absorb water and minerals from the soil. In certain instances these act as storage organs e.g. Radish.
Stem forms the aerial axis of the plant. Stem axis elongates with the help of terminal bud present at its apex. This stem bears branches, leaves and flowers. Stem is responsible for conduction of absorbed material from root to different plant parts, food manufactured in leaves and food storage in some cases. It also bears flowers which are responsible for reproduction leaves are usually green and are lateral outgrowth of stem and its branches. The place where the leaf is attached to the stem is called a Node and the part of stem between successive nodes is called an internode. Axillary space between a leaf and stem or its branch is called axil of the leaf. In the axil of the leaves, buds called axillary buds are found.

Each leaf usually consists of a stalk called petiole and an expanded green potion known as lamina. In lamina a prominent median vein called mid rib is present. Also many small veins are present.
Flowers vary in size, form and colour in different species. Each flower is composed of four types of floral leaves, the sepals, petals, stamens and corpels, arranged in whorls on thalamus. These whorls are known as calyx, corolla, Androecium and Gynoecium. Sepals and petals are together referred to as perianth. Each stamen consists of a filament and an anther while each corpel is differentiated into a stigma, style and ovary. Ovary contains small rounded or oval bodies, the ovules which develop into seeds. The ovary on ripening forms fruit the seeds on germination produce seedlings which develop into new plant.

Friday, April 27, 2012

Health is Wealth (Summary)

Friday, April 27, 2012 - 3 Comments

One day Kashif went for shopping with his mother. As he was fond of sweets, so he asked mother to purchase some from a shop. But his mother refused to buy sweets from that shop because flies were sitting on sweets. After it Kashif asked her to buy sweets from another shop which see-med to be clean. Mother refused on the grounds that she had seen a man sweeping the road along the shop. On asking mother explained that flies and dust carried germs and germs were injurious to health.
Kashif wented to know more about germs. His mother told him that when flies walk on dirty things, the germs stick to their legs. The flies carry those germs to our food. When we eat food, the germs get into our bodies and make us ill. So we should never eat such sweets and food which are non properly covered. She further told Kashif that a great number of diseases are caused by germs. For instant typhoid is caused by flies, Malaria is caused by a kind of mosquito bite. So we should make our surroundings clean and use kerosene oil and D.D.T powder. By doing so we can get rid of diseases. In this way we can preserve our health because health is wealth.

What the Quaid-eAzam Said (Summary)

Muhammad Ali Jinnah whom out of love people called Quaid-e-Azam was born on 25th December 1876. He passed his matriculation examination at the age of sixteen. Then he went for higher studies to England. He received degree of law from London. On return he started practice of law at Karachi and then at Bombay. He took active part in politics. He first joined Indian National Congress and then All India Muslim League. It was through his efforts that Muslims of Sub-continent got independence on 14th August 1947. He become first Governor General of newly created country.
Quaid-e-Azam after creation of Pakistan made several speeches, which are to guide us. In his eye all Pakistanis were equal without any distinction of colour, cast, creed and religion. He said Pakistan can be developed if the people served it devotedly. He laid emphasis on acquiring education and said if we do not educate our selves well, we will be left behind by the world community. In another speech he said we should take education in wide prospect. It is for mobilizing our people and building up character of our future generations.

The Role of Women in the Pakistan Movement (Summary)

The Muslim women played great role in the struggle for Pakistan. The great leaders from all over Sub-continent were in the fore front in fight for Pakistan and our women stood side by side with them. They went from house to house to raise funds for Pakistan Movement, they encouraged their men to make every sacrifice for attainment of Pakistan. They organized meetings and processions to attract the attention of world of their great cause.
Mother of Moulana Shoukat Ali and Moulana Muhammad Ali, Bi Aman proved guidance and encouragement for both brothers. Lady Muhamad Ali addressed large gatherings of Muslims dressed in burqah. Miss Fatima Jinnah made untiring efforts in looking after Quaid-e-Azam. Begum Ra’ana Liaquat Ali Khan worked at secretary to her husband to save the salary. Lady Nusrat Haroon, Lady Sughra Hidayatullah, Begum Khair-unnisa Shaban, Miss Fakhr-unnisa Wali Muhammad Effendi, Begum Jahan Ara Shahnawaz, Begum Salma Tassaduq Hussain, Getti Ara Bashir Ahmed and counless other ladies worked in different ways for achievement of Pakistan. Their efforts for establishment of Pakistan can not be for gotten.

Sunday, March 4, 2012

What is Economics? Adam Smith's Definition of Economics. Alfred Marshall's Economics

Sunday, March 4, 2012 - 55 Comments

What is Economics? Explain the main features of Adam Smith’s definition of Economics.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. The term economics comes from the Greek for “oikos” means house and “nomos” means custom or law, hence the term economics means “rules or laws o household”.
A definition that captures much of modern economics is that of Lionel Robbins in 1932 essay which states as “the science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scare means which have alternative uses.”
According to Alfred Marshall “Economics is the study of people in the ordinary business of life”. In short economics includes the study of labour, land and investment of money, income and production and taxes and government expenditures. Economist seeks to measure well-being to learn how well-being may increase overtime and to evaluate the well-being of the rich and the poor.

Adam Smith’s Definition of Economics:
Adam Smith wrote a book in 1776 whose title was “Wealth of Nations”. In his book he discussed the word ‘wealth’ through its four aspects: production of wealth, exchange of wealth, distribution of wealth and consumption of wealth. Therefore it can be said according to Adam Smith: “Economics is a science of wealth”. Wealth means goods and services transacted with the help of money. Let’s discuss four aspects of wealth; first one is production of wealth it shows as to how goods and services are produced. Goods and services are produced by the combination of four factors of production i.e. land, labour, capital and organization. Second aspect is exchange of wealth there are many procedures of goods and services in a society. Every procedure produces goods and services more than his personal requirement. The exchange of wealth enables everyone in the society to satisfy his multiple wants. Third aspect is distribution of wealth, which means the distribution of goods and services among different sections or individuals of a society. As known by explanation of exchange of wealth that procedures of goods and services exchange the surplus wealth with each other through out the year. The last and forth aspect is consumption of wealth that is using up the utility of goods and services for the satisfaction of wants is called the consumption of wealth.

According to Adam Smith “Economics was concerned with, An Enquiry into the Nature and Causes of Wealth of Nations.” As per definition of Adam Smith a key position was assigned to wealth in the study of Economics. The first person who introduced “Economics” as a subject was Adam Smith (1723-1790). He wrote the first book in economics entitled the “wealth of nation” in 1976. In this book he considered economics as a subject in which we study production of wealth, distribution of wealth, consumption of wealth and exchange of wealth. Production of wealth means the production of goods and services by combining four factors of production 1) Land: It is the natural resources such as Sea, Minerals, Live Stock and forest. 2) Labour: It is the mental or physical work, which is done for the sake of reward. 3) Capital: It means man made resources which help to produce goods and services. 4) Organization: It is the act of combing four factors of production to produce goods and services for the sake of profit. The production of wealth means production of goods and services. After the completion of production process this wealth is distributed among the four factors of production for their performance. Rent is given to land, wages to labour, and interest to capital and profit to organization. When people get their share from the production, they use it to satisfy their wants. They spent their income to purchase of goods and services. The surplus goods and services are exchanged with other surplus goods and services for the satisfaction of wants.

Thursday, February 16, 2012

Allama Iqbal (Summary)

Thursday, February 16, 2012 - 31 Comments

Poet of the east Allama Muhammad Iqbal was born on 9th November 1877 in Sialkot. He received his early education in his native town. He passed M.A from university of Punjab in 1899. In that year he was appointed as a professor in Arabic in Oriental college Lahore. He served as professor till 1905. Then left for London for higher studies. In London he received law degree. After that he received Ph.D degree from Germany on his work in Persian philosophy. For that he is known as Dr. Muhammad Iqbal.

Allama Iqbal was not only a great poet ut also a great philosopher. He was well versed in eastern as well as western philosophy. He spent much part of his life in study of Islam. He also took part in active politics. He bcame member of Punjab legislative council from 1926 to 1929. He was elected President of the All India Muslim League Punjab. In 1930 he presided over the Allahabad session of the All India Muslim League. On this occasion he made a clear demand for separate state of Muslims in South Asia. He directed all his efforts towards achievement of this goal.

Allama Iqbal was held in great estecm by Quaid-e-Azam. Time and again he took advices from him. Allama Iqbal died in 1938. But the Muslim state proposed by him came into being on 14th August 1947.

Helen Keller (Summary)

Helen Keller was born in 1880 in a little town in the U.S.A. When she was two years old, she fell dangerously ill. She became blind and deaf due to that illness. At being deaf and blind she was very sad. Helen’s parents employed a teacher Miss Sullivan to teach their daughter. Miss Sullivan was trained and experienced lady. She her self had also been blind, but she got her eye sight back after sometime. Miss Sullivan trained Helen to write words on sand. Slowly and gradually she learnt about history, geography, mountains and rivers.
At the age of eight Helen joined the school for blind children. There she began to speak again with efforts of teachers by feeling the movement of lips. By and by she learned to read books. She passed all her examinations easily. She went to college and then to Harvard university and graduated without any difficulty.
Miss Helen Keller visited Pakistan in 1956 at the age of 76. She paid visit to the school of blind, deaf and dumb. She encouraged the disabled students and appreciated the efforts of the staff of school. She told students to be happy and cheerful and should not curse their fate. They can do every thing in the world.

Saturday, January 28, 2012

Culture (Short Note)

Saturday, January 28, 2012 - 2 Comments

Culture is a term that has different meanings. For example, in 1952, Alfred Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn compiled a list of 164 definitions of "culture" in Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. However, the word "culture" is most commonly used in three basic senses:
  • excellence of taste in the fine arts and humanities, also known as high culture
  • an integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for symbolic thought and social learning
  • the set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution, organization or group.
When the concept first emerged in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europe, it connoted a process of cultivation or improvement, as in agriculture or horticulture. In the nineteenth century, it came to refer first to the betterment or refinement of the individual, especially through education, and then to the fulfillment of national aspirations or ideals. In the mid-nineteenth century, some scientists used the term "culture" to refer to a universal human capacity.

In the twentieth century, "culture" emerged as a concept central to anthropology, encompassing all human phenomena that are not purely results of human genetics. Specifically, the term "culture" in American anthropology had two meanings:
(1) The evolved human capacity to classify and represent experiences with symbols, and to act imaginatively and creatively; and
(2) The distinct ways that people living in different parts of the world classified and represented their experiences, and acted creatively. Following World War II, the term became important, albeit with different meanings, in other disciplines such as sociology, cultural studies, organizational psychology and management studies.

Civil Society (Short Note)

Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that state's political system) and commercial institutions of the market.

Civil society refers to the arena of uncoerced collective action around shared interests, purposes and values. In theory, its institutional forms are distinct from those of the state, family and market, though in practice, the boundaries between state, civil society, family and market are often complex, blurred and negotiated. Civil society commonly embraces a diversity of spaces, actors and institutional forms, varying in their degree of formality, autonomy and power. Civil societies are often populated by organizations such as registered charities, development non-governmental organizations, community groups, women's organizations, faith-based organizations, professional associations, trade unions, self-help groups, social movements, business associations, coalitions and advocacy groups.

Sunday, January 8, 2012

Secularization (Short Note)

Sunday, January 8, 2012 - 1 Comment

Secularization or generally refers to the transformation by which a society migrates from close identification with religious institutions to a more separated relationship. It is also the name given to a general belief about history, namely that the development of society progresses toward modernization and lessening dependence on religion as religion loses its position of authority.

Secularization has many levels of meaning, both as a theory and a historical process. Social theorists such as Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Max Weber, and Émile Durkheim, postulated that the modernization of society would include a decline in levels of religiosity. Study of this process seeks to determine the manner in which, or extent to which religious creeds, practices and institutions are losing their social significance (if at all).

The term also has additional meanings, primarily historical. Applied to church property, secularization involves the abandonment of goods by the church where it is sold to purchasers after the government seizes the property, which most commonly happens after reasonable negotiations and arrangements are made. In Catholic theology, the term can also denote the permission or authorization given for an individual (typically clergy, who become secular clergy) to live outside his or her religious colony (monastery), either for a fixed or permanent period.

Civilization and its Definition

A civilization is a society or culture group normally defined as a complex society characterized by the practice of agriculture and settlement in towns and cities. Compared with other cultures, members of a civilization are commonly organized into a diverse division of labor and an intricate social hierarchy.

Civilization is often used as a synonym for the broader term "culture" in both popular and academic circles. Every human being participates in a culture, defined as "the arts, customs, habits... beliefs, values, behavior and material habits that constitute a people's way of life". However, in its most widely used definition, civilization is a descriptive term for a relatively complex agricultural and urban culture. Civilizations can be distinguished from other cultures by their high level of social complexity and organization, and by their diverse economic and cultural activities.

In an older but still frequently used sense, the term "civilization" can be used in a normative manner as well: in societal contexts where complex and urban cultures are assumed to be superior to other "savage" or "barbarian" cultures, the concept of "civilization" is used as a synonym for "cultural (and often ethical) superiority of certain groups." In a similar sense, civilization can mean "refinement of thought, manners, or taste".

In his book The Philosophy of Civilization, Albert Schweitzer, one of the main philosophers on the concept of civilization, outlined the idea that there are dual opinions within society; one regarding civilization as purely material and another regarding civilization as both ethical and material. He stated that the current world crisis was, then in 1923, due to a humanity having lost the ethical conception of civilization. In this same work, he defined civilization, saying:
“It is the sum total of all progress made by man in every sphere of action and from every point of view in so far as the progress helps towards the spiritual perfecting of individuals as the progress of all progress.”

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