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Sunday, February 28, 2010

Economic Causes of Criminology (Short Note)

Sunday, February 28, 2010 - 0 Comments

In poverty economic causes play a very significant role. Unequal distribution of wealth is one major reason. Similarly monopoly of means of production and distribution in the hands of few is another reason. It is due to this that the few get an opportunity to exploit man. It is also due to this that rich become richer and poor still poorer. In a country with agricultural economy, uneven distribution of land and quick division and sub-division of cultivable land increases poverty. In the economic field we find that depression in trade and commerce and also labour unrest resulting in lockouts and strikes are some of the other causes for poverty. In a country, which has been in a position to end unproductive hoarding, the nation is bound to be poor and living standard of the people is sure to come down. As already said, unemployment is a major contributing factor in so far as poverty is concerned. Unemployment and poverty are to a large extent directly related to each other.

Geographical Causes of Criminology (Short Note)

In addition to personal causes there are many geographical causes for poverty as well. The nature may not favour a nation with favourable climate for production. Hence the people are bound to be poor. The country may be poor in natural resources and even if the people try to put in their maximum efforts, results may not be encouraging. We find that due to poor natural resources the people in the deserts and high mountains are usually poor. Such geographically unwanted calamities as corruption of volcanoes or earthquakes or lightening etc. increase the magnitude and extent of poverty.

Geographical Conditions (Short Note)

Geographical school of thought makes us believe that climatic and seasonal conditions are responsible for crimes. They make use believe that in hot countries crimes are committed against the individuals whereas in cold countries these are against a party. Similarly they say that according to geography crimes are committed costly in the plains rather than the hills. Therefore, they feel that geography is responsible for increase or decrease of crimes.

Wednesday, February 24, 2010

Newspaper & Cinema (Short Note)

Wednesday, February 24, 2010 - 0 Comments

In order to get publicity and wide circulation the newspapers print such stories, which highlight crimes and also discuss methods of committing crimes and avoiding police. This way the newspapers encourage crime. In our modern society cinema is a very popular source of recreation. A movie is enjoyed by millions daily. But cinema indirectly encourages tendencies towards crimes. It encourages sexual desire, urge for exhibition of body, teaches crime techniques, stimulates desires for wealth and comforts and portrays a criminal as hero. All these factors collectively result in making a person criminal and what they see in a movie try to practice in actual life.

Heredity (Short Note)

There is a school of though, which believes that the crime comes with the blood and that once the criminal has been born he cannot be removed from the path. One cannot deny that early sexual maturity, mental defects and nervous instability are the causes for committing crimes and these are related to heredity but at the same it is wrong to believe that heredity is the exclusive factor in this regard.

Physical Defects (Short Note)

Some of our sociologists try to prove that physical defects are also responsible for crimes. Those who are physically handicapped or are feeble minded or have been condemned by the society try to make up their deficiency by condemning the society and taking revenge on that. They become law violators, criminals, robbers and dacoits.

Religion (Short Note)

Religion is the most important source of purification and should be responsible for keeping the people away from the crimes. But unfortunately, today, in the name of religion many serious crimes are committed. Murders are looting, communal riots etc. are done in the name of religion. In the name of religion so many crimes were committed in England that there arose need and necessity of Reformation. Tudor and Stuart periods in the History of England are known for struggle between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. In Pakistan, in the name of religion country was partitioned, properties were looted and most heinous crimes were committed which are a slur of the fair name of our society.

Monday, February 15, 2010

Defective Marriages (Short Note)

Monday, February 15, 2010 - 1 Comment

Defective marriages result in many crimes. These marriages can be due to many reasons e.g. due to established social customs such as dowry. Those parents who cannot afford it wed their daughters with ugly and wealthy aged people. In such cases the young girls can become corrupt or even commit suicide.

Lack of Social Control (Short Note)

Then another reason is that like family, control of society over its members has considerably weakened. That is more so in urban rather than in rural areas. In big cities one finds absolutely no social control. In rural areas there is still little control. That is perhaps the reason as to why the rate of crimes in the cities is higher than what is in the villages

Lack of Control (Short Note)

One of the causes of the crime is lack of control of the head of the family over the children. Bonds of family are not so tight as these once used to be in the past. The children do not obey the commands of their parents and in fact there is no real affection between the members of the family. All this has resulted in considerable freedom to the children for committing crime. Adultery, abortion, prostitution and juvenile delinquency are primarily due to lack of family control.

Corruption as Social Problem of Pakistan (Short Note)

Bribery, especially in Pakistani society, is a social evil and a social problem. In this case also the person holds his personal values higher than the cultural and religious values. If the cultural and religious values get more importance than his personal values he will not commit corruption. This depends upon the specialization of the individual which he received in early life. The family background and the factors of association also play important role in this behaviour. To remove corruption the whole social order will have to be changed. The socializing agencies will have to undergo change of socialization. The method of socialization will be according to cultural patterns. Our culture creates hatred against, corruption instead of adopting the patterns of culture we are changing the patterns of culture rapidly. We will not succeed in socializing cultural values in young generation. Because we are laying, emphasis on culture change than on cultural adoption in our socializing institutions-family, education and others.

Solution of Social Problems (Short Note)

For the solution of these problems their corresponding efforts are required. If an individual over-emphasizes his personal values upon groups he may misuse national resources called “corruption”—an anti-social act and a social problem in our society. The solution is to make the individual realize that group values are more important than his personal values.

Wednesday, February 10, 2010

Creation of Social Problems (Short Note)

Wednesday, February 10, 2010 - 0 Comments

Individual values are personal directly related to the desires, interests and gaols of the individual. Secondly, the group values are determinant of group interest, goal or desire, irrespective of other values. Such social values are restricted to the groups. Thirdly national values are those which are generally, shared by the people. Their collective interests are consolidated in one. These values are found at national level and their violation disrupts the common interest of the whole society and thus creates social-problem. The social values endangered produce social problems.

Victimless Crimes (Short Note)

In white-collar or common crimes, people’s economic or personal wellbeing is endagenered against will (or without their direct knowledge). By contrast, sociolgoists use the term victimless crimes to describe the willing exchange among adults of widely desired, but illegal, goods and services. Despite the social costs to families and frineds of those engaged in such behaviour, may people in Pakistan continue to indulge in gambling, prostitution, alcoholism, and use of drugs as victimless crimes in which there s no “victim” other than the offender himself. As a result, there is pressure from Islamic Fundamentalists’ organizations on the government to enforce Islamic Sharia in the country.

White-Collar Crime (Short Note)

Edwin Sutherland noted that certain crimes are committed by the affluent, “respectable” people in the course of their daily business activities. Sutherland likened these crimes to organized crimes because they are often perpetuated through the role of one’s occupation. Sutherland referred to such crimes as white-collar crimes. More recently, the term white-collar crime has been broadened to include offences by business and corporations as well as by individuals. A wide variety of crimes are now classified as white-collar crimes such as income tax evasion, stock manipulation, consumer fraud, bribery, and extraction of “kickbacks,” embezzlement, and misrepresentation of corporate information.

A new type of white-collar crime has emerged since Sutherland first wrote on this topic: computer crime or “backing.” The use of such high technology allows one to carry out embezzlement or electronic fraud without leaving a trace, or to gain access to a company’s inventory without leaving one’s home.

In addition to the financial costs of this form of crime, that run into billions of rupees per year (stuck-up loans, for example), white-collar crimes have distinctive social costs, including a decline in the quality of life, inflation for general public, and weakening of the social order. If those at the top of the nation’s economic, power and social structure feel free to violate the law, less privileged citizens can certainly be expected to follow suit.

Given the economic and social costs of white-collar crimes, one might expect this problem to be taken quite seriously by the criminal justice system of Pakistan. Yet white-collar offenders are more likely to be very leniently treated than any other class of criminals. They are not arrested because bails-before-arrest are granted to them quite readily, hearings against them proceed with much delays in the courts, and eventually only financial penalties are imposed upon them. Moreover, convictions for such illegal acts do not generally harm a person’s reputation and career aspirations nearly so much as conviction for a petty everyday crime would. Thus, if an offender holds a position of status and influence in Pakistani society, his or her crime is treated as less serious and the sanction is much more lenient.

Friday, February 5, 2010

Organized Crime (Short Note)

Friday, February 5, 2010 - 0 Comments

The term organized crime has many meanings. For our purposes, we will consider organized crime to be the work of a group that regulates relations between various criminal enterprises involved in smuggling and sale of drugs, prostitution, gambling, and other activities. Organized crime dominates the world of illegal business just as large corporations dominate the conventional business world. It allocates territory, sets prices for illegal goods and services, and acts as an arbitrator in internal disputes.

Organized crime is a secret, conspirational activity that generally evades law enforcement. Organized crime takes over legitimate business, gains influence over labour unions, corrupts public officials, intimidates witnesses in criminal trials, and even takes “taxes (bhatta)” from merchants in exchange for “protection”. Through its success, organized crime has served as a means of mobility for groups of people struggling to escape poverty.

Professional Crime (Short Note)

An enough the adage “crime doesn’t pay” is familiar, many people do make a career of illegal activities. A professional criminal is a person who pursues crime as day-to-day occupation, developing skilled techniques and enjoying a certain degree of status among other criminals. Some professional criminals specialize is burglary, safecracking, hijacking of cargo, pick pocketing, and shoplifting. Such people can reduce the likelihood of arrest, conviction, and imprisonment through their skill. As a result, they may have long careers in their chosen “professions.”

Crime (Short Note)

Crime is a violation of criminal law for which formal penalties are applied by some governmental authority. It represents some type of deviation from formal social norms administered by the state. Crimes are divided by law into various categories, depending on the severity of the offence, the age of the offender, the potential punishment that can be levied, and the court that holds jurisdiction over the case.

Tuesday, February 2, 2010

Conflict Theory (Short Note)

Tuesday, February 2, 2010 - 0 Comments

Why is certain behaviour evaluated as deviant while other behaviour is not? According to conflict theorists, it is the cause people with power protect their own interests and define deviance to suit their own needs.

Sociologists Richard Quinney is a leading exponent of the view that the criminal justice system serves the interests of the powerful. Crime, according to Quinney, is a definition of human conduct created by authorized agents of social control—such as legislators and law enforcement officials—in a politically organized society. He and other conflict theorists argue that lawmaking is often an attempt by the powerful to coerce others into their own morality.

This helps to explain why our society has laws against gambling, drug usage, alcoholism, and prostitution that are violated on a massive scale. According to the conflict school, criminal does not represent a consistent application of social values, but instead reflects competing values and interests. Thus, heroine is outlawed in Pakistan because it is alleged to be harmful to users, yet cigarettes and alcohol (under license) are sold legally almost everywhere.

Effects of Heredity and Culture on the Personality

Personality Development

Man develops his personality while living in society. Social interaction in various groups and playing various roles in various social situations shape the man into a ‘Persons’. This is his personality. Human behaviour requires certain conditions in which it is learnt. These conditions give him a social life.

1. Heredity – Young and Mack defined it as the transmission of genetic characteristics from parents to their offspring. It is the structure of body which man receives at his birth. This is unchangeable by learning processes of social life. Most of the traits inherited at birth remain the same in the whole social life. These traits are the basis of his personality.

2. Environment – Young and Mack defined it as those forces, situations, or stimuli which affect the individual from outside. It is in which the individual is born. It consists of buildings, tools, clothes, art, science, religion and other man-made ways of doing things. Environment is of several types.

(i) Natural Environment – It consists of physical and biological environments. The physical is inorganic like stone, dust, sand water, etc. The biological environment is organic like plants, trees, flowers, animals, birds and trees etc.

(ii) The Cultural Environment – It has three elements which combined together called social. These are psycho-social, physio-social and physio-biological. The relationship between two types of institutions produce cultural environment.

3. Culture – What we receive as social heritage from our ancestors is called our culture. We make changes in it by performing our roles and leave it for the coming generation. Cultures are the guiding star of our social life. What we lean and how is our life is the answer of our culture. Culture teaches us how to behave and pay certain role in a certain social situation.

4. Social Group – The individual with the above three factors come in contact with others and develop social group. He learns the social norms in his group and becomes ‘social’ thus he becomes a member of society.

Heredity and Personality

The traits and characteristics received by birth by an individual affect the type of role performance. Personality traits depend upon learning capacity in society. This capacity to learn cultural traits differs from individual to individual due to heredity characteristics of brain, endocrine and ductless glands and nervous system in the same environment. A pair of twin brothers born and brought up in the same environment with equal facilities and protection of parents will behave differently due to difference in their personality structure. What are the factors responsible for his difference? The answer lies in the structure and nature of organism especially of brain, glands and nervous system which are inherited by birth. Some characteristics which are inherited by all human beings are given below:

1. Physical Structure – how tall or short one is, one has long nose long ears, organs of body put together in what way.

2. Intelligence – capacity to learn.

3. Temperament – exciting, lethargic, extrovertive, introvertive or offensive.

4. Reflexes – direct responses to stimulus such as blinking of eyes when something approaches it; and

5. Innate drives – impulses to act based on physiological tensions, instincts, as hatred, anxiety, feeling hungry and thirst

Culture and Personality

Culture and personality interplay within each other. Culture will lose its significant ‘dynamic’ characteristic if not modified, changed or replaced by unique individual and group experience of the people. This dynamic character of culture is fundamental for its continuity and fulfilment of the needs of society for all times and space. On the other hand the personality of the individual is farmed in this or that frame of reference of cultural environment. Hence both have a bearing upon each other. Let us have a review of both the aspects.

Bearing of Culture upon Personality

It is the culture in the lap of which we shape curselves as Aslam, Iqbal, Jameel and Saleem. We come across variety of people in daily life besides those who are members of our family. This variety is so varied that none of them is the same in shape, voice and other behaviours within the same society. This vast aggregate of different people is the product of culture. These people interrelating themselves in various cultural bonds following various norms differ from the people of another culture. There is difference sin all the walks of life due to the difference in cultural conditions. Every culture has its own value-system oriented upon its people. The language and gestures used in communication develop a special type of mode in interaction. Values develop certain rituals, ceremonies, etiquettes, manners, sentiments, emotions, interests, style and other customary ways of living; and the technological development provides varieties and alternatives in human need and their satisfaction. Hence every culture has its speciality visible in the personalities of its members as Pakistanis, Iranians, Turks, Americans, Andamanese and Australian aborigines due to variation in language, value system, and technological development.

Merrill is of opinion that the human being at birth is very plastic and can develop in many directions, depending upon cultural setting. The personality takes shape under the impace of socialization in a particular cultural environment.

A tree grows out of the soil – an inorganic; an animal out of the organic matter and similarly an individual develops himself within the super-organic that is cultural conditions.

Role of Media and its Social Effects on the Society

Social Effects of Press and Newspapers

1. The books preserve knowledge which is transmitted from generation to generation. This communication of knowledge gets changes, and becomes up-to-date and preserves itself for all times to come.

This knowledge attains a universal position by consensus among thinkers through magazines and journals. These journals and magazines provide fresh knowledge of latest research to the readers.

The newspapers perform the role of providing information about the latest finding in a certain field.

Books preserve knowledge

Magazines and Journals create consensus among the thinkers of a discipline

Newspapers disseminate news about the findings of a research.

All the above three sources of information are the products of press and are interrelated as shown above. No scientific finding can attain the position of a fact and knowledge without consensus of its experts. Form newspapers we go to journals and finally to books. The pres in this way inter-relates the readers, the researchers and the teachers with one another. This is a great social function of the press.

2. The books and the magazines shape traits of personality in the individual according to their subject matter.

3. The newspapers create harmony in public opinion. The people get closer to one another informing their opinions on certain national and international issues.

4. The books preserve cultural, social and religious values, beliefs, attitudes and sentiments of society. The books transmit knowledge from one generation to other when these books are read.

5. The newspapers broaden the circle of thinking and break the old customary bonds of primitive culture. They bring about social and cultural change rapidly. Wide thinking is produced. Ideas about old things are converted into new thoughts.

6. The newspapers help in expansion of trade and business by printing of their advertisements. They are an important means of publicity and propaganda.

7. Political activities of parties are publicized by broad space provided it statements of their political leaders. Good impression of the party and the leader are created on the readers of the newspaper.

8. Criticism by one party leader upon the leader of the opposition is also given wide space in the papers. At this the people frame their opinions in favour or against the leader under criticism.

9. The mostly read are the newspapers, which publish news on crime, courts, police, and obscene pictures by creating sensation, terror and tension in the people. Sometimes minor news is exaggerated into major events creating thrill in the readers. Some news relating to court judgements, statements of party leaders, and events of daily life are not truly reported.

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