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Sunday, December 13, 2009

White-Collar Crime

Sunday, December 13, 2009 - 0 Comments

White-Collar Crime
Edwin Sutherland noted that certain crimes are committed by the affluent, “respectable” people in the course of their daily business activities. Sutherland likened these crimes to organized crimes because they are often perpetuated through the role of one’s occupation. Sutherland referred to such crimes as white-collar crimes. More recently, the term white-collar crime has been broadened to include offences by business and corporations as well as by individuals. A wide variety of crimes are now classified as white-collar crimes such as income tax evasion, stock manipulation, consumer fraud, bribery, and extraction of “kickbacks”, embezzlement, and misrepresentation of corporate information.
A new type of white-collar crime has emerged since Sutherland first wrote on this topic: computer crime or “hacking”. The use of such high technology allows one to carry out embezzlement or electronic fraud without leaving a trace, or to gain access to a company’s inventory without leaving one’s home.
In addition to the financial costs of this form of crime, that run into billions of rupees per year (stuck-up loans, for example), white-collar crimes have distinctive social costs, including a decline in the quality of life, inflation for general public, and weakening of the social order. If those at the top of the nation’s economic, power and social structure feel free to violate the law, less privileged citizens can certainly by expected to follow suit.
Given the economic and social costs of white-collar crimes; one might expect this problem to be taken quite seriously by the criminal justice system of Pakistan. Yet white –collar offenders are more likely to be very leniently treated than any other class of criminals. They are not arrested because bails-before-arrest are granted to them quite readily, hearings against them proceed with much delays in the courts, and eventually only financial penalties are imposed upon them. Moreover, convictions for such illegal acts do not generally harm a person’s reputation and career aspirations nearly so much as conviction for a petty everyday crime would. Thus, if an offender holds a position of status and influence in Pakistani society, his or her crime is treated as less serious and the sanction is much more lenient.

Victimless Crimes
In white-collar or common crimes, people’s economic or personal wellbeing is endangered against their will (or without their direct knowledge). By contract, sociologists use the term victimless crimes to describe the willing exchange among adults of widely desired, but illegal, goods and services. Despite the social costs to families and friends of those engaged in such behaviour, may people in Pakistan continue to indulge in gambling, prostitution, alcoholism, and use of drugs and victimless crimes in which there is no “victim” other than the offender himself. As a result, there are pressure form Islamic Fundamentalists’ organizations on the government to enforce Islamic Sharia in the country.

Crime and its Types

Crime is a violation of criminal law for which formal penalties are applied by some governmental authority. It represents some type of deviation form formal social norms administered by the state. Crimes are divided by law into various categories, depending on the severity of the offence, the age of the offender, the potential punishment that can be levied, and the court that holds jurisdiction over the case.

Types of Crime
Rather than relying solely on legal categories, sociologists classify crimes in terms of how they are committed and how the offences are viewed by the society. In this section, we will examine four types of crime as differentiated by sociologists: professional crime, organized crime, white-collar crime, and “victimless crimes”.

Professional Crime
Although the adage “crime doesn’t pay” is familiar, many people do make a career of illegal activities. A professional criminal is a person who pursues crime as day-to-day occupation, developing skilled techniques and enjoying a certain degree of status among other criminals. Some professional criminals specialize is burglary, safecracking, hijacking or cargo, pick pocketing, and shoplifting. Such people can reduce the likelihood of arrest, conviction, and imprisonment through their skill. As a result, they may have long careers in their chosen “professions”.

Organized Crime
The term organized crime has many meanings. For our purposes, we will consider organized crime to be the work of a group that regulates relations between various criminal enterprises involved in smuggling and sale of drugs, prostitution, gambling, and other activities. Organized crime dominates the world of illegal business just as large corporations dominate the conventional business world. It allocates territory, sets prices for illegal goods and services, and acts as an arbitrator in internal disputes.
Organized crime is a secret, conspirational activity that generally evades law enforcement. Organized crime takes over legitimate business; gains influence over labour unions, corrupt public officials, intimidate witnesses in criminal trials and even take “taxes (bhatta)” from merchants in exchange for “protection”. Through its success, organized crime has served as a means of mobility for groups of people struggling to escape poverty.

Suggestions for Solution of Juvenile Delinquency in Pakistan

Suggestions as well as Remedies

1. We can control over population by increasing our income and popularizing population planning in our society. It is very much unfortunate that inspire of our best efforts we have not been able to have substantial results of population planning. This system is unique and it can work very well as it has very successfully been executed in our brother Muslim country Indonesia so fault is in between the lines. We should try to find out the weak point of this system. I am sure that must be in the implementation and not in the system by itself. Once the trend is set then the problems of over-population can be solved easily.

2. Politics and especially party-politics in educational institutions have given a great damage to all of us. Students instead of seeking knowledge turn to the vested interests of politicians and ruin themselves. Students must be kept away from the active politics. This would enable us to keep them on right track.

3. Films, TV, VCR, Radio, Magazines, Journals and Press can play a dominating role in revolutionizing the society and easily bring about a very healthy change soon. These are very powerful Medias and have a far reaching influence over the public.

4. Child-labour must be prohibited by the state very strictly. Child-labour is one of the factors which ultimately lead them to juvenile delinquency. State should take the responsibility of loading and boarding of the orphans so that they may not indulge in this evil.

5. Such customs, traditions which are in no way useful for the society must be discouraged and cut-down. It should also be the prime duty of the parents that they should not impose their will on their children unnecessarily. Rather the will of the children if correct must be respected.

6. Play and play-grounds must be increased in almost all the big cities of Pakistan so as to make our youth sound and healthy. Today in the whole of world games have taken a shape of modern science and no country can thin of avoiding it.

7. Psychology is that branch of science which deals with mental problems of human beings. Both here in Pakistan we have not given this subject its proper place. Thus we are unable to understand the inner problems of a child. Children at various stages need psychotherapy. We can learn all this when we study psychology in detail.

8. In our country there is a lack of marital adjustment. It will not be out of point here that at least 50% marriages which take place are without mutual consent or even mutual understanding. With the result they fail very soon and create many problems for their innocent children. There is no doubt in it that it all happens due to the lack of information and un-education. Moreover, the people of the rural areas are still under the yoke of old customs and traditions which add more to their problems.

9. It is the utmost duty of the government to provide basic facilities of life to the “Karachi Abadis” so as to make their living convenient for them. This would certainly curtail the rapid growth of juvenile delinquents in such areas.

10. Finally I may request those parents, who for the sake of earning more money leave their families behind in lurch and go abroad while doing so they actually loose their families permanently. Their children feel unprotected and unchecked. They become an easy prey to the evils of society. Our younger generation is our future. Are we ready to sacrifice our future just for the sake of few chips? This question needs your attention.

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