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Monday, December 7, 2009

Juvenile Delinquency as a Social Problem in Pakistan

Monday, December 7, 2009 - 0 Comments

Introduction
Juvenile delinquency is that behaviour on the part of children which may, under the law subject those children to the juvenile court. As such, it is a relatively new and legal term of a very old phenomenon.
The term has both precise and diffuse referents. When a child is designated a juvenile delinquent by the court. This is a precise definition of his legal status. He is by this act a ward of the court subject to its discretion. By contrast except in a strictly legal sense, the term refers only vaguely to actual behaviour. Since what is delinquent varies greatly over time and from one part of the world to another.
Many youngster part in activities defined by the statutes as delinquent but are not detected or if detected are not brought to the attention of legal authorities and some of these youngsters who have not been legally designated as delinquent are define as delinquent by others significant to the community and to themselves. For purposes of scientific inquiry delinquency may be defined as behaviours that are specified by law as grounds for an adjudication of delinquency and delinquents as those young people who engage in such behaviour.

The Data of Delinquency
Official courts of delinquents or “offences known” are limited in the extent to which they can contribute to knowledge concerning the extent and nature of delinquency or of the processes involved in becoming delinquent. They represent the activities of the officials rather than of young people and legal rather than scientific concepts of behaviours. They provide little information about the characteristics of offenders of their behaviour.
The very flexibility of legal processes concerned with juveniles call into question the comparability of official data from one jurisdiction to another. Despite these limitations for some purposes official data are useful, and they are in any case the only data available for describing certain characteristics of the phenomenon. They are particularly useful as reflection of official concern with juvenile delinquency over time within and between societies. Certainly variations in official handling of offenders by age, sex, and other theoretically meaningful categories reflected varying degrees of social concern with the behaviour of young people. In addition they may provide crude indexes of the behaviour of children which are reliable perhaps only with respect to the most serious types of behaviour for these will most consistently be officially recorded.
Because of limited usefulness of official data of treatment and illogical purposes agencies and projects devoted to these ends also generate large bodies of data concerning delinquents. These take thee principal forms in clinical reports. Public attention on juvenile delinquency and provided additional impetus for large scale social action and research programme directed at the acquisition of new knowledged concerning J. D. and its control.

Age and Sex Differences
Throughout the world juvenile court cases tend to be in older age categories specified by law official cases of delinquency thus tend to be a phenomenon of adolescence and young adulthood rather than of childhood. In countries that have experienced increases in delinquency however the average age of court appearance has tended to decrease.
Boys and girls are not equally involved in delinquency and sex ratios are not the same for all types of delinquency. The ratio of boys to girls appearing before juvenile courts is very much related to the over all social structure of a society as well as to variations within it. As the social status of woman approaches that of men and women again greater freedom to participate in the affairs of the larger society socialization patterns in the family and other.

Salient Features of Juvenile Justice System Ordinance in Pakistan

Salient Features of Juvenile Justice System Ordinance 2000

Definitions
A child is defined as a person who, at the time of commission of an offence, is below the age of 18 years.

Arrest and Detention
The guardian of an arrested juvenile shall be informed as early as possible after the arrest.
The concerned probation officer has to be similarly informed.
A child arrested for a non-bailable offence must be produced before juvenile court within 24 hours, while a child arrested for a bailable offence must be released on bail even without surety.
It provides for children to be detained in Borstal institutions (which are defined in the JJSO as places where a child may be ‘detained and given education and training for their mental, moral and psychological development’). It also provides for resources and funding for the construction of these Borstal institutions around the country.
It prohibits any child from being handcuffed or put in fetters while he or she is in custody.
It prohibits any child from being forced to suffer corporal punishment / hard labour during custody or detention.
It prohibits keeping children in police stations for bailable offences.

Trial and Sentencing
It provides the child with free legal representation, free medical treatment and appeal against a conviction within a 30 day period.
It prohibits any joint trial of a child with an adult.
Unnecessary delay in proceedings should be avoided by the authorities.
Offences carrying ten years punishment are made bailable for children less than 15 years of age and it is prohibited to publish proceedings.
It prohibits any child from being sentenced to the death penalty.

Role of Pakistan to Prevent the Crimes in Pakistan as well as International Crime

Pakistan’s role in the prevention of international crime has been praised by the United Kingdom Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA) at the launch of its first annual report on Friday. Speaking at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, the Director-General, SOCA, Bill Hughes said Pakistan has been actively assisting his organisation in different aspects of trafficking Mr. Hughes said SOCA has liaison officers stationed in Pakistan and are working very closely with the country’s law enforcing agencies in the prevention of international crimes. “The cooperation and help from Pakistani authorities had been excellent and SOCA is pleased with the support being provided by Pakistan agencies,” he said. He said SOCA is tackling serious, organised crime in new ways to reduce harm and make UK a hostile environment for dangerous criminals. SOCA in its first year of establishment has stored a number of successes. These include the seizure of 73 tonnes represent 20 percent of Europe’s estimated 350 tonnes supply annually, has prevented 35 potential murders while working with police forces around the world and due to hi-tech surveillance. Mr. Hughes further said SOCA has compiled initial target list of 1600 most harmful criminals to UK by sifting huge amounts of intelligence identify the most harmful some of whose danger had not been fully realised. He also noted SOCA’s 95 percent success rate in the courts, thanks to the agency’s criminal justice skills and a new approach of involving prosecutors from the start. Regarding its work in Afghanistan, Mr. Hughes said the work in that country to tackle the heroin trade has been done under very challenging conditions. He said in October last year, in the first raid of its type, three local banks were raided.” A very large amount of paperwork relating to movements of suspected drug trafficking money was seized. This has identified some 80 people SOCA are now targeting and significantly disrupted financing work in the region.” Mr. Hughes also spoke about Dubai as a major money laundering network in the region, adding that SOCA has a fantastic working relationship with the UAE authorities. He said the struggle against drug dealing, illegal immigration, fraud and other organised crimes is a marathon and not a sprint but working with others, SOCA has made a good start in its first year of operation since being launched on April 1, 2006 and is ambitious for what can be achieved in the years ahead. SOCA has been working closely with agencies in the UK, the UAE, Italy, Spain, Australia, USA, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkey, Bulgaria, Albania, and in South America.

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