Wednesday, November 18, 2009

Unemployment is a Basic Cause of Crime

Unemployment
Problem of unemployment is gripping the whole universe. Even in developed countries where it is claimed that there is full employment the position is not really so because some of the people are either unemployed or have not been placed on the jobs of their choice. In underdeveloped and undeveloped countries, the situation is however, altogether different. In these countries usually there are large numbers of people who do not get any employment at all.

Unemployment Defined
Though various definitions have been put forth, yet in general terms it can be said that unemployment is a condition of situation of economy in which society cannot provide jobs to all people who are willing to work. In other words it can be said that the remunerative work is not available to the people for making them meet their both ends. Karl Pribram says that, “Unemployment is a condition of the labour market in which the supply of labour is greater than the number of available openings. Similarly Fair Child says, “Unemployment is forced and involuntary separation from remunerative work on the part of normal arcing time, at normal wages and under normal conditions”. From many other definitions which have been given by our sociologists, one thing emerges that unemployment is a condition in which society fails to provide remunerative jobs to the people who have will, desire and capacity to work.

Forms of Unemployment
Unemployment can be due to circumstances, which are in the control of the individual, and then it is called subjective employment. But when unemployment is due to the causes nor within the control of the individual it is called objective unemployment. Unemployment can be due to depression in trade or economic depression and inflations, and then it is called cyclical unemployment. But when the unemployment is due to closing of seasonal industries we may define it as seasonal unemployment. In many cases there is defect in the economic structure of the society and in such cases we all that structural economy. In few employing agencies work is not of regular nature. Usually they throw out the people when the work has decreased. In such cases we call that as sudden unemployment. But in most of the countries there is general unemployment, which means that the society even otherwise fails to provide unemployment in spite of the fact that unfavourable and unexceptional conditions may not occur. It means that under normal times and circumstances people do not get employment.

Unemployment and Social Disorganization
Unemployment aggravates social disorganization it reduces the living standard of the people and forces a person to spend his time in making his both ends meet rather than contributing anything to social welfare and advancement. In many cases it also dislocates harmonious family life and creates frictions in the family.

Unemployment in
Pakistan
Unemployment in Pakistan is one of the developing countries of the world. But unfortunately due to vast and ever-increasing population, nation has not been in a position to provide employment to vast majority of its people. The problem of educated unemployment is still more serious and alarming because that is creating discontentment and dissatisfaction among the core of society. No less serious problem is that of agricultural unemployment.

Causes of Agricultural Unemployment
Pakistan is even today a nation with an agricultural economy. Wit the present rate of development for country cannot think of changing from agricultural economy to industrial economy, at least for sometime to come. Therefore it is essential to study the causes of agricultural unemployment in sociology, because that influences our social life. One of the main causes of agricultural unemployment is that industry is not in a position to provide jobs to millions of its people with the result that they depend on agricultural land, which does not require their services. Thus on the one hand there is pressure on the land, whereas on the other there is unnecessary wastage of manpower resulting in unemployment. Then another reason is that whereas population is increasing, land remains the same. Thus non-availability of land also causes unemployment among the agriculturists. Still another reason is that even those who are engaged on the soil do not find work for the whole year round. They have only seasonal work and when peak season is over, they are without any unemployment. Code of any subsidiary industries for our agriculturists adds to the problem of unemployment and thus the farmers continue to remain in artificial employment in spending their time and resources on unproductive and unfertile land.
One of the serious problems, which result in the unemployment of our agriculturists, is that even today he depends on rain for his cultivation. Inspite of the fact that many dams have been constructed, canals have been dug and water resources have been channelised, still our farmer looks towards sky for rain. Ultimately rains or absence of rains throws him of employment. Though many regions have undertaken consolidation of land programme, yet we find that still the land is scattered and there are uneconomic holdings, which provide only partial employment. Further fragmentation and sub-division of land results in further unemployment. No less is the contribution of old obsolete and unscientific weapons which are unable to provide sufficient produce to those engaged in the profession, thereby providing them full employment. Thus the problem of agricultural unemployment in Pakistan is very grave and serious.

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