Friday, November 27, 2009
Social Organization and its Essential Elements
Meaning of Social Organisation:
Social organisation indicates that state in which there is peaceful interaction between the different elements of the society. They work according to pre-fixed and recognised aims. In other words the existence of definite role and status is necessary for social organisation. Besides, there should be uniformity in the aims, goals and programmes among the members of the society.
In the words of another eminent scholar: “Social organisation itself is not something static, which one established, will forever remain without change. In one sense, social organisation is a hypothesis, and ideal construct emphasising the relatively unchanging aspect which are always present in every society.”
In social organisation, there is opportunity and harmony and adaptability with the physical environment. There is opportunity and facility for the fulfilment of collective aims without any obstructions.
Further, in social organisation, there is consensus on physical problems and equal interest in social values. The social structure on which the form of the society rests, function, properly. Social control is acceptable and applicable to all. There is sort of balance among diverse elements of society. A process of harmony and adaptability continues with the changing conditions of society. There is also harmony between the individual aims of the person and the collective aims of society. Social organisation makes social habits which develop as a result of collective experience as the medium of thinking and action and establishes harmonious between different institutions and committees. Social organisation depends upon the degree of harmonious relationship among institutions and committees and this direct relationship in dependent upon the structure of society.
Complete harmony with the physical environment is also only an imaginary conception. Consensus of all the members on a social subject, consensus of a collective subject and adoption of one method for the achievement of common points and one definition of all the main social institution are only the viewpoints based on conjecture. These states may take cooperatively more or less time. The given social hypothesis of social control, values and social structure appears to be impossible. All the social values cannot be viewed from one viewpoint. The age of today is individualistic whether the society lives in villages or industrial centres. Social control cannot be absolute in any society; it is not possible even in Communist countries. Social structure can never remain static in any condition. The Hindu society of today is completely different from the Hindu society of past.
Definition of social organisation: Social organisation is reverse an opposite condition of social disorganisation. For the understanding of social disorganisation, the knowledge of social organisation is a necessary as it is necessary to have the knowledge of the condition of the patient before trying to know the disease.
According to Elliot and Merrill: “Social organisation is a state of being, a condition in which the various institutions in a society are functioning in accordance with their recognised implied purpose”.
Similarly according to Ogburn and Nimkoff, “An organisation is an articulation of different parts which perform various functions, it is an active group device for getting something done”.
In social organisation, the harmonious processes of interaction go on. Collective definition is necessary for social aims and for their fulfilment a common programme is also necessary.
Relative Concept: Social organisation is somewhat a relative concept. There is no society which may be either completely organised or completely disorganised. Both these conditions are usually found in societies. The different is only of the degree. If any society is full of dissociative elements, then it will be called a disorganised society. A society which is full of associative elements, it will be called organised society. No society can be placed in completely a single category. Consensus and ability of behaviours and indicative of an absolute social organisation. But these are impossible in complex and dynamic society of today.
Social organisation and culture are mutually related to each other. The definition of social organisation depends upon its culture. In each society there are certain common behaviours and common habits and there are different types of common programmes to achieve them. In our society, they may be the cause of disorganisation while in another society, they may be the cause or organisation. The whole creation of human beings is called culture. As remarked by summer: Culture is the sum of total human creations”.
Culture includes those means which check the direct influence of natural environment. Those means can be classified into the following three categories:
(a) Artifacts or Tools
(b) Technique and
Artifacts or tools are those things through which physical or material things whether they be animate or inanimate, can be made helpful for the benefits and use of man. For example, the motor car, on which man rides and depends for his safety.
Technique is the process through which man uses anything for his use, for example, the technique of driving motor car.
Beliefs are of many types. They may be social, moral, spiritual and scientific.
Institutions are main aids of man and the cultural symptoms which are beyond institutional set up, cannot become parts of the social organisation. It is possible that one means or thing may become part of different institutions. For example, a motor vehicle is necessary for hospital as well as commercial or other organisations. According to Mowerer: “Thus various Social Institutions in their inter relatedness constitute the pattern of social organisation”.
It is clear from the above statement of Mowerer that social organisation depends upon the organisations of institutions. Institutions can be regarded as the units of social organisation. Anything that obstructs the function of the institutions is the cause of disorganisation.
Essential Elements of Social Organization
Following are the essential elements of social organizations:
(1) Social Control: According to B. J. Stren: “The social control which the group imposes upon its members imparts a certain consistency and stability to human activities”.
Social control becomes an obstruction in establishing adjustment with the changed society. Man has made folkways, laws and institutions for exercising or having control over social behaviour. Social control is regulated through folkways, mores, laws and institutions.
Folkways: Folkways are social habits which are transferred from one generation to other generation and their social importance constantly increases and slowly and gradually they assume the form of social control. Thus they receive common recognition whether they be in matters of foods, clothes etc.
Mores: Elliott and Merrill have placed these in that category of folkways with which is connected the welfare philosophy of the society. These have more social and moral sanction than the folkways and these are considered more beneficial for common welfare. It is necessary for all to accept these and they make a deep influence on each society.
Laws: Elliott and Merrill have called these are more clear Mores. Laws are those Mores which have behind them royal or State sanction and which force any one to obey them. The inclusion of Mores is necessary to make the laws effective. Laws become ineffective when they are against the Mores.
Institutions: According to summer, Institution is concept which has a structure. Institution are more effective than the other elements of society. Institutions are the representatives of those values which have become parts of society. They are definite and are for the fulfilment of some definite aims. Institutions are the men of social control and make the social balance or difficult due to their firmity or rigidity. Family, church or temple, school and State are the main institutions of society. Their importance for the society has already been proved and universally recognised.
(2) Consensus: According to Elliott and Merrill: “Social organisation is fundamentally a problem of consensus”.
Social consensus is necessary for society. According to Worth, there is no such society in which the members do not take part in social values and social aims and do not follow social rules.
According to De Tocquevill: “A society can exist only when a great number of men consider a great number of things in the same point of view, when they hold the same opinions upon many subjects and with the same thought and impression to their minds”.
Consensus arises automatically and is not forcibly established. Elliott and Merrill have remarked that without a fundamental consensus, physical structure of society is just like a hellow rod.
Regarding the importance of consensus, Park and Burgess have remarked, “Society is complex of organised habits and social attitudes, in short, consensus”.
There cannot be complete consensus on matters of social importance. But the consensus of the different parts of society is necessary. Social disorganisation being when common hopes and understanding of man suffer on decline.
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