Friday, October 2, 2009

Genetic Code (Short Note)

The word code is used several times to refer to the information stored in DNA and ultimately translated into amino acid sequence of Proteins.

The genetic code is conceptually similar to Morse code. One set of symbols (bases in nucleic acids, dots and dashes in Morse Code) can be translated into another set of symbols (amino acids in Proteins).

Genetic code was three bases to specify each amino acid. There are four different bases in DNA: adenine (A), Cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine T. there are also four bases in RNA: adenine, cytosine, guanine and uracil (u). But there are 20 different amino acids in Proteins, so the bases cannot serve as one to one code for amino acid.

Genetic code might use short sequence of bases to encode each amino acid, just as Morse Code uses a short sequence of dots and dashes to encode the letters of alphabet.

If a sequence of two bases codes for an amino acid, then there will be 16 (4 × 4) possible combination of bases.

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