Wednesday, September 23, 2009

Family Rosagae and its Economic Importance

VEGETATIVE CHARACTERS

Common plant is rose. Family includes large group of trees, shrubs and herbs and climbers of diverse habit.

Root: Tap root branched.

Stem: Herbaceous or hard and woody, branched; many shrubby forms are armed with spines.

Leaf: Alternate, simple or compound, pinnate, stipulate often adhering to the petiole; leaf base conspicuous, spines many, also occur on the rachis.

FLORAL CHARACTERS

Inflorescence: Flowers solitary or grouped in racemose or cymose manner, corymbs rather predomicnating which are large and showy.

Flower: Regular, bisexual, hypogynous or perigynous or epigynous oving to the fusion of the carpels with the calyx tube; epicalyx representing the stipules of the sepals sometimes present as in Fragaria.

Calyx: Sepals 5, united, adnate to the receptacle, lobes free, valvate or imbricate, green.

Corolla: petals 5 or numerous in multiples of five, free, imbricate, rosaceous, large and showy inserted on recepticular cup.

Androecium: Stamens many, free commonly borne in several cycles of 5 on the rim of the torns i.e. perigynous, rarely one. They are bending inward in bud state.

Gynoecium: Carpels one to fine or as in rose free or variously united generally superior, sometimes inferior and united with surrounding axis, disc or tubular cup. Style free or connate, commonly as many as carpels; ovules one or two in each carpel; placentation basal when the carpel is one or apocarpous but axile when many syncarpous.

Between stamens and carpels lies a cushion shaped or ring like nector secreting disc easily accessible to visiting insects attracted by large amount of pollen.

Fruit: variable, a drupe or pone or etario of drupes, achenes or follicles. Seed non endospermic embryo with fleshy cotyledons.

FLORAL FORMULA:

+, ♀, K(5), C5-, Al-, Gl- or (5)

FLORAL DIAGRAM:

FIG 140 PAGE 191 ANGIOSPERM BY G. L. CHOPRA

e.g.: Rose (Rosa Alba), rasp berry (Rubus frutiorus) strawberry (Fragaria versca), Pear (pyrus communis) and apple (Pyrus malus).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE:

This family is rich in distribution to the pleasure and welfare of mankind. It include apples, Pears, Peaches, Apricots, Almonds, Strawberries, Black berries, Rasp berries and several other edible fruits which are of immerse value.

Petals of rose have a purgative property and are used in manufacture of gull-kand and in many kinds of scents.

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