Friday, August 21, 2009
According to Fairchild, Social mobility is a movement from one condation to another.
Bredemeyer and Stephenson say that social mobility is moving of an individual or group of people from one status to another.
From these definitions it is clear that social mobility.
(1) Is a movement of an individual or group of people from one condition to another;
(2) Is adoption of a change which may be social progress; or
(3) Is rejection of previous social condition and adjusting into the new change of life.
Social mobility is change in occupation, in residential place and in statues upward or downward.
Every society of the world has social mobility. Though the rate of mobility is different in all the societies depending upon their cultural condition. The following are in the factors which bring about social mobility.
Causes of Social Mobility:
(1) Dissatisfaction from previous condition: The people stick to the same condition does not fulfil the purpose of new social ways of living. They leave it and attend to the new condition of life.
(2) Adoption of new conditions: The people leaving the vious conditions adopt the new ones which are functional according to the new ways of living. This adoption of new way of living is called.
(3) Industrial and Technological Development: The development of technology and industry brings about a have in the socio economic structure of society. The modes of living of the people are changed which bring about change in attitudes, ideas, habits, customs and sentiment of the people. It means total socio-cultural life is changed. He we get social mobility.
(4) Education: The progress of education is imperative in n industrially advanced society. The development of technology industry and education are simultaneous processes being correlated. Advancement in education makes a society mobile.
(5) Urbanization: The development of urban population and modern attitude is called urbanization It is also attached with the development of education, technology and industry. These factors are interrelated together. The population of Faisalabad showed the highest increment (927%) in 1961-72 census. This factor of urbanization is being guessed due to high rate of expansion in technology industry and education in this city.
(6) Means of communication and Transportation: The means of communication and transportation play great role in bringing about social change. The people get traditional attitudes changed and accept modern ways of living by these sources of information.
Types of Social Mobility:
There are three types of social mobility.
(1) Territorial Mobility: It is the change of residence from one place to another. In rural area of Pakistan this mobility found because the people of a community dislike leaving their ancestral place of living. In urban areas the people sell one house and purchase on other, one and get another on rent; leave one city and migrate to another.
In Karachi 70 to 80 thousand people enter the city annually from other parts of the country. In 1959 the migrants constituted 82% of the total population. Within the last 30 years, the population growth rate in Karachi has been 7% annually (Figures taken from the 10th annual conference 1977 of Pakistan Sociological Association Journal on Urbanization in Pakistan). According to an estimate 4% of the population is shifting from rural to urban areas of Pakistan.
Some people migrate to cities due to modern facilities of education, health, recreation and transportation. Some for Jobs and some migrate for other reasons.
(2) Vertical Mobility: It is defined as any upwards or downward change in the absolute or relates rank of any individual or group. Promotion in Job, change in income marrying a woman of high status, are the expels of vertical mobility. The upward mobility is from down to upward and taken place when one is progressing in income, status, Job, education or any other role. The downward move takes place, when there is less in business, loss in income, fall in status or Job or loss of wealth and property. In both the cases the social change is there. Vertical mobility in upward direction is at its fast ratio in urban areas. Because here the socio-economic conditions are rapidly progressing. In rural areas this rate of upward mobility is slow due to limited socio-economic resources. The downward mobility is seen when inefficient son wastes his inherited property in adultery gambling, drinking and other social evils. After some time her comes down to lower class from upper.
(3) Horizontal Mobility: An alteration of Profession with no significant movement up or down in the system of social status is called horizontal mobility.
Amanger or store shifts to another store on the same rank, Pay and Prestige, will be called horizontal mobility. It is a change in Profession with no change in income and status. A person working on medical store opens education department shifts to health department at the same pay and facility, it is horizontal mobility.
The rural people in Pakistan are frequently changing their profession. It means horizontal mobility is least found there. In urban areas all the members in a family almost belong to different professions. It is due to high rate of change in horizontal mobility.
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