Friday, August 21, 2009

Organization, Objectives and Principles of United Nations

The foundations of the United Nations were laid on the League of Nations. League failure to avert the war and promote the cause of peace reiterated the conviction of the people, all over the world to work out for enduring peace. The name “United Nations” was devised by president Franklin D. Roosevelt and was first used in the declaration by ‘United Nations’ of January 1942 during the war when representatives of 16 nations their governments to continue fighting together against the Axis powers. The advent of UN owes its roots to the Moscow Declaration of November, 1943 whereas Foreign Minister of China, Russia, UK and the United States took up a decision to establish an international organisation. The efforts were continued and negotiations were being conducted. The representatives of the countries mentioned above again met at Washington in September-October 1944 and are also known as Dumbarton Oaks talks. On October 7, 1944 the proposed frame work of the UNO was tentatively published. These proposals were further discussed at the yatta conference in February 1945, where Heads of United Kingdom, America and Russia-Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin took part. Finally, the draft was signed on June 26, 1945. The UN Character comes into being on October 24, 1945 when it was ratified by a requisite number of states.
Objectives of United Nations:
The objectives of the United Nations are enshrined in the preamble to charter. There are four major objectives:
(i) To save the succeeding generations from the scourge of war.
(ii) To reaffim faith in fundamental human rights, in the work and dignity of human person and equal rights of men, women and nations large and small.
(iii) To establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained.
(iv) To promote social progress and better standard of life in large freedom.
These objectives envisaged a better and peaceful life to the people of the world through practising to learnce and living together in peace and harmony with one another. This spirit has facilitated the emergence of the concept of peaceful coexistence among the states despite political, economic and ideological difference prevailing between them. The preamble envisages the principal of collective security to maintain international peace and security.
The preamble emphasises the use of international machinery to promote economic and social advancement of the people through the world. This is the development of less developed countries.
The Purpose and Principles of the United Nations:
The purpose of the United Nations is set forth in Article 1 of the charter. These include the following:
(1) Maintenance of international peace and security.
(2) Development of friendly relations among nations.
(3) International cooperation in solving problems of economic social cultural and humanitarian nature promotion and encouragement of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.
(4) To act as a centre for harmonising the actions of nations to achieve the above ends.
It will be observed from the above list of purposes of United Nations, that maintenance of international peace and security has been given first place, because in its absence the other purpose of maintenance of international peace and security, the UN can take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace and to bring about any peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustments or settlement of international disputes of situations which might lead to a breach of the peace.
The UN also seeks to develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principal of equal rights and self determination of the peoples, and can take other appropriate measures to strengthen Universal peace. Both the above purposes of the United Nations are essentially political in character because they have a direct bearing on the struggle for power among the nations.
The third purpose of the United Nations is to ensure international cooperation for solving international problems of economic social, cultural or humanitarian nature.

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