Thursday, August 20, 2009
Main Criteria and Kinds of Socialization
Socialization is a process by which the biological man is made social through socio-cultural influences around him. This is a lengthy process through which group values are induced into an individual. Socialization stands for a process by which the original nature of man is fashioned into social being. From the social point of view, socialization is the way of transmitting the culture to an individual and the individual is fitted into an organized way of group life.
So, broadly speaking, socialization is the transmission of culture to an individual. This transmission mostly takes place through learning and an effective learning comes from one’s experiences. This experiences can be gained through social interaction. The group life provides chances of social interaction; thus it plays very important role in socialization of the individual. There are two major classifications, of group interaction i.e. significant others and generalized other”. Socialization of an individual mostly takes place through significant other (primary group) and generalized other; (secondary groups).
Socialization is a process of learning the expectations (standards of values and specific norms of behaviour) associated with various roles to which the individual is allocated. Devianey is the tedeney of the individual who had a full opportunity to ignore these expectations, to deviate from them, because maximum gratification of this personal need does not corresponded with conformity to the expectations. Socialization helps bringing social control in society. Socialization is not a matter of one or two days, but on other hand, it is a long process having various stages trough which a child has to pass and get socialized. In this beginning a child learn the group norms through his expenences, while living primary groups later on the acquires socio cultural pattern by interacting with generalized other. In this way he learns what is expected behaviour in different social situations.
Kinds of Socialization:
There are two important kinds of socialization i.e. informal socialization and formal socialization.
1. Informal Socialization: By informal socialization we mean a social learning which an individual receives in his primary group of from these he is in direct contact with such as parents, family, playmates and also books he reads. It is not conscious and an organized learning for certain ends. It occurs consciously or unconsciously. For example, learning beliefs, languages and moral values fall in this category.
2. Formal Socialization: Formal socialization includes both conscious learning of an individual which takes place in a particular direction with specific purpose and under certain rules and regulations and in an organised way. For example a child in the schools is socialized in certain direction with certain purpose or the training and grooming of army officers as well as civilians also fall in this definition.
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