Friday, August 21, 2009
Important Industries of Pakistan
Industries, on the basis of the respective production, can be classified into three kinds:
a. Capital goods industries
b. Consumers goods industries
c. Agro-based industries
The details of these Pakistani industries are given as under:
a. CAPITAL GOODS INDUSTRIES:
The industries which produce further capital are called ‘capital goods industries’ therefore, machine, tools, parts, raw material producing industries are included in the capital goods industries. The capital goods industries in Pakistan are given below:
1. Iron and Steel Industry: No country, without the development of Iron and Steel Industry, can develop economically. All the developed countries are developed due to the developed iron and steel base. Pakistan does not produce steel according to her needs therefore; the gap between demand and supply is bridged up through import of steel. Pakistan Steel is the steel producing project which could, no doubt, be regarded as the pioneer of Heavy Industry in Pakistan.
2. Engineering Industry: Engineering Industry is of strategic importance for the industrial development. Modern Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Malaysia are economically prosperous because of development of engineering industry. This industry, due to reasons, could not develop in Pakistan therefore; the engineering goods are imported to cater the local needs. Heavy Mechanical Complex (HMC) is a big name in the Engineering industry in Pakistan. This complex has been manufacturing complete cement plants and sugar plants. Moreover, it is also producing Boilers, cranes, road making machinery and different items for Pakistan Railways.
3. Automobile Industry: Automobile industry create constructive effects on tractors, threshers and other agricultural tools, defence vehicles, automobile and other industries which include metal wires, fiber glass, paints, rubber, plastic and glass industry. The first automobile plant was established in Pakistan Automobile Corporation (PARCO) was established in 1972. Presently, Pak. Suzuki Motor Company, Hino Pak, Alghazi Tractors, Gandhara Nissan were producing automobiles with recent addition of Toyota and Honda Motors.
4. Electronic Goods Industries: Electronic goods include many items like electric fans, bulbs, Heaters, transformers, batteries etc. Siemens Engineering Company has been playing an important role in producing electronic goods. Electronic goods industries in Pakistan are engage in producing cold storage plants, air conditioners, radio, refrigerators, television, audio cassette etc.
5. Chemical Fertilizer Industry: Pakistan is an agrarian country therefore; fertilizer industry is of strategic importance here. The first chemical fertilizer plant was set up at Daud Khel and the second was established at Faisalabad. As a result of Nationalization programme in Pakistan, the private fertilizer plants were transferred to National Fertilizers. There are 10 chemical fertilizer factories in Pakistan which are producing Nitrogenous and Sulphate fertilizers.
6. Petro-Chemical Industry: All the goods that are made of petrol and natural gas are concerned with the Petro-chemical industry. These goods include artificial fiber, plastic detergent and rubber.
b. CONSUMER GOODS INDUSTRIES:
Consumer goods are the goods which are used to extract utility or the satisfaction directly like cement, sugar, leather etc. Following are the consumer goods industries in Pakistan.
1. Pharmaceutical Industry: At the time of inception of Pakistan in 1947, there was pharmaceutical industry in Pakistan and all the medicines used to be imported. P.I Dogar Company and Frontier Chemical Works were making some minor medicine at the time at Lahore and Peshawar. Today there are 235 licensed pharmaceutical units out of which 32 are multipurpose.
2. Leather Goods Industry: Pakistan, as an agrarian country, is rich in cattle wealth like oxen, cow, buffalo, goats, camel, sheep etc. Moreover, Pakistan is also a Muslims country where meet is main in food items. This is the reason that the raw materials (hides and skin) for leather goods industry is abundantly available here. The future of leather goods industry in Pakistan is very bright. The centers of leather goods industry in Pakistan are at Karachi, Hyderabad, Multan, and Lahore. The leather goods include shoes, leather begs, leather garments etc.
3. Cement Industry: There were two cement manufacturing factories in Pakistan in 1947; Daimian Cement and Associated Company of Bombay. In the light of importance of cement for the construction work in the country one cement plant was established in Hyderabad with the name Zeal Pak and white cement plant at Daud Khel named Maple Leaf. Presently, there are 22 cement plants in Pakistan out of which 8 in Sindh, 9 in Punjab, 3 in NWFP, one in Islamabad and one plant in Baluchistan. The cement plant under completion is National Cement Plant, Cement Plant of Petro, Army Welfare Cement Project and Associated Cement Wah.
c. AGRO-BASED INDUSTRIES:
Agro-based industries which, for their raw material, depend on agriculture like textile, ghee, sugar edible oil, tobacco, fruit/vegetable processing industries. Agro-based industries of Pakistan are given as under:
1. Cotton Textile Industry: Cotton textile industry is the most important industry in Pakistan because it contributes 60 percent of total exports of the country and it is 18 percent of total heavy industrial output. Cotton is the raw material for cotton textile industry which is the cash crop of agricultural sector. Textile industry developed fast during fifties and sixties but after the Nationalization process of 1972 in Pakistan it has been converted into ‘sick’ industry. Presently, there are 503 textile factories in Pakistan.
2. Sugar Industry: After textile, sugar industry occupies the second important place in Pakistan. Sugar cane and Sugar beat are the raw materials for sugar industry which are the agricultural crops. There are 74 sugar mills in Pakistan out of which 38 are in Punjab, 30 in Sindh and 6 are in NWFP. Sucrose proportion in sugar cane of Sindh are embodied more than that of sugar cane of Punjab, therefore, concentration for installing the new factories is being given in Sindh.
3. Edible Oil/Ghee Industry: Edible/Ghee industry is the biggest one which uses imported edible oil. Edible oil is achieved seeds of soya bean, sunflower and cotton and cotton and Canola as well s palm. All these are the production of agricultural sector. Pakistan imports soya bean and palm oil in bulk. There are 9 ghee producing plants with Ghee Corporation of Pakistan.
4. Tobacco Industry: Tobacco is the cash crop of agricultural sector. ‘Virgina’; the best tobacco is cultivated in Peshawar. The other kinds of tobacco are cultivated in Rawalpindi, Multan, Lahore, Bahawalpur and Khairpur Divisions. Tobacco is also cultivated in Baluchistan. Mostly, ‘Filter’ tobacco is produced in Pakistan which is used in Cigarette Industry. Apart from Filter, other kinds of tobacco are Virgina, Flue cured, Verly and While Ash. There are 123 cigarette factories in Pakistan. Eighty four percent of total market demand of cigarette is met by 3 big cigarette companies including Pakistan Tobacco Company, Lexon Tobacco and Premier Tobacco Company.
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