Friday, August 21, 2009

General Characters of Agricultural Problems of Pakistan

Our agricultural land is facing many problems and some of the major problems are the conversion of arable land into non – agricultural uses, water lagging and salinity and erosion scenarios are the most disastrous of the present day crises.
The total land area of Pakistan is nearly 197 million aces, while the population growth rate is 3.1 percent annually. As our total area is fixed, which cannot be increased, therefore, with rapidly expanding population pressure on it, it is also increasing quickly. As a result, our current and potential land is reducing and shrinking tremendously. It has been estimated that throught the country, everyday approximately 500 acres (1 acre = 4.840 square yards) of farm land is taken out of agriculture by the expansion of settlements, roads, factories and many other non – agricultural activities. It is predicted that if this trend continues then after every decade approximately a million acre or more of crop land would be taken out of agriculture is our country. In USA, for examples, nearly 8,000 acres of farmland is last each day due to non – agriculture uses.
Arable land is basic and major resource for the production of human food. But is seems that the expansion of human population and human activities are reducing the availability of land, suitable for food production at an alarming rate. Expanding population demands move food on one side and devour agriculture land on the other side, which is a matter of great concern for every one.
Out of total land area, 80 million hectors, 21 million hectors in cultivable. Of the total cropped areas 16.2 million hectors (77%) is irrigated in Pakistan varies form (less than 100 mm in Sindh to more than 750 mm in the foot hills and northern mountains. About 60% of this rainfall occurs during monsoon. In spite of a number of draninage salinity, menace control schemes being under taken, the salinity and water logging problems positively persist and each year 40,000 hectors of irrigated land is lost to water logging ad salinity. On the hand the nation needs more food to full fill the demands of its increasing population while on the other hand, each year the cultivable commanded are (CCA) is decreasing due to this twin meriace.
Pakistan is quite outstanding country in the world with regard to its well – knit irrigation system with covers from upper parts of the country, down to the mouth of Indus in the south, irrigated areas (nearly 16.0 million hectors) are generally limited to the Indus plain and river Indus and its tributaries are the main source of irrigated water of this 12.09 million hectors are canal irrigated 3.35 million hectors by other sources. Of the total area under irrigated agriculture about 9.6 million hectors is arid, 3.8 million semi – arid and the remaining area is characterized by sub – humid. No doubt, irrigation system has increased agricultural production but on the other hand has created the problems of salinity and water logging.
Percolated irrigation water has raised the under – ground water level and subsequently has water logging. Excessive salinity of the under ground water he also harmful effects on the soil body. Ascent of dissolved mineral of irrigation water through cat capillary action increases of soil at salinity and damage it fertility. It is rightly said that logging is the cancer of soil. Because of poor soil drainage and improper irrigation practices, the huge amount of arable land is water loggined and has become saline new. The problem has water destroyed million of acres of form land the country. Water logging and deposition of whitush crust of salts are changing farm land into uperoductive land and many areas, the crop fields are reduced considerably.
Reports say that during every five minutes, one acre fertile farm land is taken out from agriculture because of this problem. Such land losses must be cheacked by draning the affected areas and by planting there hydrophtes.

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