The aim of education is to provide equipment and technique for meeting various needs of life. educational institutes shape our attitude and prepare us for behaving in a certain manner in defined situation. Education supplies us instruments by which we can realize our social goals. These goals and values are defined by the system of education prevalent in a certain society. Hence education socializes an individual into a useful member of society.
Aims of Education:
There are three basic aims of education which were put up by Socrates in fifth century B.C. These views shaped the classic Greek view of knowledge and education:
1. Education is the development of the power to think and not the acquisition of information.
2. Education is a search for ‘virtue’ and truth rather than technical proficiency.
3. Education looks to lasting truth, based on reason, not to mere opinion or to practical knowledge.
Besides these aims John Dewey added that education is the reconstruction of experience.
These aims can be attained through educational institutions.
Functions of Education:
The following are the major functions of education in Pakistani society:
1. Cultural Transmission – The system of education transmits our cultural values to the next generation. During education the following three processes take place.
1. The teacher while teaching learns the socio-cultural norms himself. He himself is socialized first in the cultural ways of life.
2. While teaching he adds his own experiences in the knowledge what he received from his parents and teachers. He does not transmit the same without change. By adding his experiences he makes knowledge up-to-date and according to the requirements of society.
3. He, by transmitting the new knowledge, educates the younger generation and thus brings a social change.
It means teaching and transmitting change the teacher, the methods, the matter of education and those who receive education.
The ways of life of or ancestors are handed down to coming generations through education. The most important example in this case in the learning of science which is being transmitted to next generation with changes after research.
2. Social Integration – Education creates social organisation in society by harmonising the attitudes, ideas, habits, customs, emotions and sentiments of the people. It develops homogeneity by developing general laws of social life. different social groups are organised together on the cooperation of common principles found in education. In this way education integrates different groups of people into an organised unit.
3. Future Occupation – Education directs towards selection of future occupation. It is a guidance of social life. It provides methods to acquire information on various aspects of life. The individual by this information selects his profession as the most suitable for him.
4. Techniques of Learning Skills – Education enables man to learn the techniques of the profession he has adopted. Education provides facilities for one who wants to study medical, engineering or legal knowledge. It is a weapon by which an individual can gather the technical skills of his profession.
5. Socialization – Education itself is a process or socialization. It changes those who receive education. It develops personality traits among the students.
6. Rational Thinking – It makes man to think rationally. He can see the cause of an event and understand the situation clearly. It makes man an independent individual in society.
7. Personal Adjustment – By education an individual makes personal adjustment with the environment in which he lives. He can very easily adjust himself in the social group of his community.
8. Family Living – Education trains man how to live in family. He knows the status of the members of his family and fits himself with them by his roles. Marriage, marital roles, children and the roles of father all get into his knowledge and he lives a successful life.
9. Patriotism – Patriotism develops through education in the young generation. The children recognise themselves and their duties toward nation.
10. Character Building – The major function of education is to build character among the students. They learn the social and cultural values and become useful members of society. The character is morality which is transmitted through education.