Friday, August 21, 2009
Cause of Poverty
Poverty is a social problem of Pakistan because majority of the population dwells on the subsistence level, and some even below that. These people are deprived of modern facilities of education, health, communication and education. These people are mostly illiterate and they associate with the same stratum of the society.
Poverty is considered a social problem because these people lag behind the powerful and affluent members of the society. They do not understand the ways of progress and are caught in a “Vicious Circle” of poverty hampering their opportunity to get a head in life, and this lack of opportunity further deteriorating their present level of poverty. Due to their pathetic condition, they get frustrated and may resort to a variety of criminal behaviours disturbing the stability and balance of the peaceful social existence.
Causes and Solution:
1. Illiteracy, because in the competitive economic world of today an illiterate, or for that matter, a moderately literate person can not land a “well-paying” job.
2. Inheriting poverty is another factor for being poor.
3. Wasting time in idle activities and not keeping a check on ones income and outflows also lead to poverty.
4. Wastage of inherent resources in criminal, delinquent and other idle activities is also a cause of poverty in our society.
Migration refers to the shifting of people from one area (usually rural areas) to another area (mostly cities) within the same country. International migration refers to the mass exodus of people primarily settled in one country to another country in the face of any natural (storms, famines earth quakes) or forced (war, economic depression) event.
About 3 million people migrated from Afghanistan to Pakistan during 1980-90 owing to Russia-Afghan war. These people remained in Pakistan for over 10 years, and they still live here in the wake of socioeconomic devastation that the on going civil war has caused in Afghanistan, Pakistan, has there fore, had to bear the burden of food, shelter, health and other necessities of life. This is an example of international as well as international migration. Refugees from Afghanistan first settled down in the northern areas of Pakistan when they crossed over. However with the passage of time and in search of better economic opportunity within Pakistan, they have migrated to the urban areas of Pakistan. Thus, further straining the already inadequate resources of these cities. It is estimated that 70 to 80 thousand people migrate to Karachi annually from other parts of Pakistan. It is further estimated that 4% population annually is from rural to urban areas of Pakistan.
Similarly, Muslims of the Indian occupied Kashmir are leaving there households at the hands of Indian artro cities, and are migrating into Azad Kashmir to seek shelter and protection. Millions of Bihais are still lying helpless in the camps of Bangladesh. They claim themselves to be Pakistanis and claim their migration to Pakistan. Bangladesh government does not take their responsibility as its citizens. Their socioeconomic condition is very poor. They want permanent settlement of their citizenship in either country. They are facing an acute problem of international migration lying in camps.
Internal (from rural to urban) and international (from neighbouring countries) migration of population have created a number of problems for Pakistan.
Whereas the folk ways are norms of behaviour our mores regulate our social behaviour. In fact the distinction between folk ways and mores is mores is more of degree rather than that of nature. MacIver has said that Hence we should not think of the mores as something different the folk ways. They are the folk ways, in their capacity as instruments of contral. They express the group standard, the group sense of what is fitting, right and conducive to well being”. Green has defined mores as “common ways of acting which are more definitely regarded as right and proper than the folk ways and which bring greater certainly and surety of punishment if violated are the mores” supnmer has said that “I mean by mores the popular usage and traditions when they include a judgment that there are conducive to social welfare and when they exert coercion on the individual to confirm to them although they are not coordinated by any authority according to Gillin and Gillin “Moreover are those customs and group routine which are thought by the members of society to be necessary to the groups continued existence”.
Folkways have become a common expression to designate customs. The folkways then are the recognised or accepted ways of behaving in society. The include conventions, form of etiquette and the myrid modes of behaviour men have evolved and continued to evolve with which to go about the business of social living. They are like products of natural forces which men unconsciously set in operation or they are like the instinctive ways of animal, which are developed out of experience, which reach a final form of maximum adaptation to an interest, which are handed down by tradition and admit of no exception or variation, yet change to meet new conditions, still with the same limited methods, and without rational reflection or purpose. But Gillin and Gillin have defined “Folkways by saying that Folkways are behaviour patterns of every day life which generally arise unconsciously in a group”. Another sociologist defines the folkways in different way that Folkways are simple habits of action common to the members of group. They are the way of folk that are some what standardised and have some degree of traditional sanctions for their persistence.
8. Cultural Change:
The cultural is the aspect of society, which includes norms while the learning of these norms in groups is social, the inventions of television and Radio-set are cultural changes the change brought in attitudes and behaviour of the people by these inventions are social changes all innovations including fact finding in research are cultural changes. The changes brought in society by the application of these innovations are social change, cultural change becomes social change. First there is cultural change which becomes social change in social life.
9. Social Change:
A social Change is difference of material objects and the attitudes of using things along the time and space. Social change involves such idea an interaction, movement, growth and function. Again he holds, that social change means that large number of person engaging some time before. We found our Pakistani society expanding its production of manufacturing industries by increase of almost six fold during the period 1950-61. Social change is meant only such alteration as occur in social organization that is the structure and function of society. It means leaving a thing or an attitude and adopting by a society is called social change.
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